Teachers' Training and Development in Sichuan Province, PRC: The Status Quo and Existing Problems1/ FORMATION ET PERFECTIONNEMENT DES ENSEIGNANTS DANS LA PROVINCE DU SICHUAN, RÉPUBLIQUE POPULAIRE DE CHINE: LE STATU QUO ET LES PROBLÈMES ACTUELS
Lei, Yun, Hong, Rong-feng, Deng, Yu, Canadian Social Science
Our study shows that Sichuan Province has established a modern normal education system with its unique features, in which the courses offered continue to be optimized and practice teaching attracts increasing respect. However, the teaching of professional knowledge and general knowledge about education still cannot strike a balance. The teachers' qualification credentialing system guarantees professional development; the position appointment system has taken effect, but the personnel quota system needs more flexibility. Teachers' salary is on the small side. Schools, colleges, and universities differ greatly in teachers' welfare due to absence of a corresponding security system protecting teachers' rights and interests. Educational authorities on the whole have experienced growing awareness of teachers' in-service training, which is rich in form while weak in content.
Key words: Sichuan Province; teachers' training and development; status quo; problems
Résumé: Notre étude montre que la province du Sichuan a mis en place un système moderne de l'éducation normale avec ses caractéristiques uniques, dans lequel les cours offerts continuent à être optimisés et l'enseignement pratique attire de plus en plus de respect. Toutefois, l'enseignement des connaissances professionnelles et des connaissances générales sur l'éducation ne peut toujours pas trouver un équilibre. Le système de l' accréditation de la qualification des enseignants garantit le perfectionnement professionnel; le système de la désignation des postes a montré des effets, mais le système du quota personnel a besoin de plus de flexibilité. Le salaire des enseignants n'est pas très élevé. Le bien-être des enseignants diffèrent grandement selon les écoles, les collèges et les universités en raison d'une absence d'un système de sécurité approprié qui protège les droits et les intérêts des enseignants. Les autorités éducatives ont connu une sensibilisation croissante vis à vis de la formation continue des enseignants, qui est riche en forme tandis que faible dans le contenu.
Mots-Clés: province du Sichuan; formation et développement des enseignants, statu quo; problèmes
Teachers' qualifications exert great influence upon the quality of education because teachers are the subjective element in the micro system of education. Teachers' training and development plays a critical role in the course of education because teachers are the key element in the macro system of education. It is a must to strengthen teachers' training so that the educational course can move forward. Therefore, information about the present situation as well as problems arising from teachers' training and development is in bad need. We have conducted a study on teachers' pre-service training, the school organizational system, pay and welfare, and in-service training, describing the status quo and problems of teachers training and development in Sichuan Province.
1. PRE-SERVICE TRAINING
1.1 Training Institutions
A characteristic modem normal education system has taken shape. In Sichuan, there were three kinds of public institutions in charge of teachers' pre-service training: secondary normal schools, normal colleges (without degree programs), and normal universities (offering degrees). Students of secondary normal schools, who are graduates from secondary schools, lack a solid basis in professional knowledge, thus failing to meet the needs of modem education. Presently, secondary normal schools are excluded from teachers' pre-service training. Teachers' pre-service training is now part of higher education in this province. It should be noted that, with the evolution of teachers' qualification credentialing system, some education companies also play a part in teachers' pre-service training, e.g. the Startcareer education company and the Longmen education company (which are two of the key education companies in Chendu, Sichuan) etc. Our study shows that they have become an important supplement to the teachers' pre-service training system. …