The Greek Nurses' Job Satisfaction Scale: Development and Psychometric Assessment
Moumtzoglou, Anastasius, Journal of Nursing Measurement
The growing literature relating to job satisfaction among nurses concludes that more research is required to understand the organizational, professional, and personal variables that improve nurse satisfaction and retention. This study developed and psychometrically tested a nurse satisfaction questionnaire, suitable for the nurses' working conditions in Greece. A cross-sectional survey, in Greek, was conducted in three public hospitals. Two-hundred and twenty-five Greek nurses evaluated the psychometric properties of the Greek Nurses' Job Satisfaction Scale (GNJSS). The 18-item questionnaire showed a high degree of internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.907) and revealed four factors that are consistent with the predetermined subscales and the conceptual base of the GNJSS. The factors, which explain 62.420% of variance, are associated with interaction and recognition, leadership style and organizational policies, self-growth and responsibility, and remuneration and work itself. Although it would be useful to carry out further analyses to assess time-based properties of reliability, the GNJSS questionnaire is a reliable and valid instrument to assess nurses' job satisfaction.
Keywords: job satisfaction; analysis of variance ; factor analysis; logistic regression
The widespread nursing shortage and nurses' high turnover, which are related to limited professional development (Gardulf et al., 2005), have become global issues (Aiken et al., 2001; Blegen, 1993; Fung-kam, 1998 ). Job satisfaction is the most frequently cited factor for nurses' turnover (Blegen, 1993; Cavanagh & Coffin, 1992; Irvine & Evans, 1995). Job satisfaction has always been an important issue because high levels of absenteeism and turnover can affect the bottom line of an organization. However, few organizations have made job satisfaction a top priority, perhaps because they have failed to understand that satisfied employees tend to be more productive, creative, and committed to their employers.
Job stress and emotional exhaustion, strongly related to job dissatisfaction (Piko, 2006), might exacerbate the current shortage and result in poor patient outcomes (Hassmiller & Cozine, 2006). Consequently, assessing and, most important, understanding nurse satisfaction is necessary. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to devise and test the psychometric properties of a new instrument that assesses nurses' job satisfaction. Existing nursing scales suffer from a number of limitations: their reliability and validity are not adequate, and they are either very long or very short and developed on nurses from different health care systems.
Moreover, they do not take into account developments in nursing, society, and workplace as well as the idiosyncratic educational and working conditions of the nursing personnel in different countries. Finally, taking into account that nurses represent a diverse and dynamic group with varied motivations and expectations, job satisfaction is a multidimensional and dynamic phenomenon that is not fully explored by existing instruments.
BACKGROUND AND CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
Theories of Job Satisfaction
Fung-kam (1998) identified four general job satisfaction theories: the need/value fulfillment theory, the person-environment theory, and the theories of career and work adjustment. The theory of need/value fulfillment proposes a negative relationship between individual needs in the extent to which the job meets these needs and job satisfaction. The person-environment theory suggests that there are person characteristics that suit working environments better than others do. The theory of career (Holland, 1973 , 1985) suggests that personality and type of work are congruent, while the theory of work adjustment is concerned with the degree of correspondence between individuals and their work environments.
Adams and Bond (2000) classified job satisfaction theories into three groups: