The Clash of Peoples in Civilizations; A Comparative Modeling Perspective
Targowski, Andrew, Comparative Civilizations Review
The purpose of this study is to analyze concepts of diversity when applied at the level of such large entities as race, ethnicity, society, nation, empire, state, and civilization as compared to groups integrated by common values and/or interests, such as castes, elites, classes, and nets. Such social ideologies as nationalism, racism, and others will also be analyzed from the point of view of their roles in the evolution of civilization. This evolution will be analyzed in the stages of Early, Colonial, Imperial, Post-Imperial, Globalizing, and Universal Civilizations, which terms will be defined in the course of this paper.
Furthermore, benefits and costs of historic diversity solutions will be estimated as a base to create challenging diversity and multiculturalism-oriented policies in the 21st century. The latter will be analyzed in the context of these policies in the current nine civilizations (Western, Eastern, Japanese, Chinese, Islamic, Hindu, Buddhist, African, Global) in order to define an optimal solution (balancing assimilation and isolation tendencies) which eventually may eliminate the negatives of multiculturalism and address the concepts of state, global and world citizenships within a hybrid culture. Recommendations are offered to improve the current civilization's social dynamics.
Key words: clash of people, race, ethnicity, castes, classes, elites, nets, society, nation, empire, civilization, multiculturalism, diversity, nationalism, racism, hybrid culture, global citizenship.
The purpose of this study is to analyze concepts of diversity and evaluate their applications in the evolution of civilization. Furthermore, benefits and costs of historical diversity solutions will be defined as a base to create challenging diversityand multiculturalism-oriented concepts in the 21st century. The latter will be analyzed in the context of the current nine civilizations in order to define an optimal solution which will eliminate the negatives of the current state of multiculturalism and address the issues of state, global and world citizenships.
It is important to notice that the United Nations declared on December 10, 1948 a Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR):
"Whereas recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world
Whereas it is essential, if man is not to be compelled to have recourse, as a last resort, to rebellion against tyranny and oppression, that human rights should be protected by the rule of law...."
The ideas and values of human rights can be traced through history to ancient times and in religious beliefs and cultures around the world. European philosophers of the enlightenment period developed theories of natural law that influenced the adoption of documents such as the Bill of Rights of England, the Bill of Rights in the United States, and the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen in France. During the Second World War the allies adopted the Four Freedoms: freedom of speech, freedom of assembly, freedom from fear and freedom from want, as their basic war aims.
However, after 60 years of applying the UN UDHR, it is still true that the world is not free from the clash of people triggered by human ethnicity and diversity. This study will investigate (at the level of synthesis) the reasons for such a situation and the repercussions of multiculturalism through the development of civilization.
Diversity is the foundation of life forms for the entire Earth. Biodiversity is often used as a measure of the health of biological systems. Biodiversity found on Earth today consists of many millions of distinct biological species, the product of four billion years of evolution. Hence, sociodiversity is one of the dimensions of biodiversity. …