Evaluation of Regional Innovation Networks: Based on Principal Component Analysis/EVALUATIONS SUR LES RÉSEAUX RÉGIONAUX D'INNOVATION: BASÉES SUR L'ANALYSE DES COMPOSANTES PRINCIPALES
Ma, Guo-yong, Canadian Social Science
Regional Innovation Networks is becoming a main pattern in regional innovation and development. To figure out the characteristics of regional innovation networks, this paper is based on the sociology theory of networks relationship and structure analysis. It evaluates the whole situation of regional innovation networks of China and concludes that the degree of opening, the communication strength among the main innovation individuals within the region, the scale of the regional node, and so on, such kind of factors have great influences with the regional innovation networks. Above that, this paper also analyzes the reasons of existing problems and puts forward counterpart suggestions.
Keywords: regional innovation networks; relationship; structure; principle component analysis
Résumé: Les réseaux régionaux d'innovation deviennent un motif principal du développment de l'innovation et de l'économie régionales. Pour déterminer les propriétés structurales et relationnelles des réseaux régionaux d'innovation, cet article analyse les caractéristiques des réseaux régionaux d'innovation en utilisant les théories sociologiques sur les relations et les structures de réseaux. Il évalue le niveau global des réseaux régionaux d'innovation en utilisant les méthodes d'analyse des composantes principales et en conclu que le degré d'ouverture, l'intensité d'échanges entre les sujets d'innovation dans les réseaux régionaux et l'ampleur de noeud régional ont une influence importante sur les réseaux régionaux d'innovation. Sur cette base, l'article analyse également les problèmes existants et en donne des propositions.
Mots-clés: réseaux régionaux d'innovation; relations; structures; analyse des composantes principales
Since J.A. Schumpeter put forward the concept of innovation, it has become one of the most focused topics in economics research. The research of innovation theory follows the pattern through Linear Mode to Non-linear Mode, and has become the theoretical and practical foundation of innovation networks theory.
Freeman C. published an article in Research Policy in 1991, and clearly mentioned the concept of innovation networks for the first time. Freeman uses the terms of Networks of Innovators, Innovation networks, and Networks of Innovation as the same meaning at the same time, and takes the innovation networks as one of a basic institutional arrangement. He concludes that the structures of the networks are mainly contributed by innovative cooperation among the enterprises and are aimed to improve the capability to increase sales and revenues (Freeman C, 1991). Since then, more and more scholars began to concern about innovation networks.
There are two main aspects to dig into innovation networks, one of which is the theory of innovation, and the other of which is the research on industry clusters. They are two counterpart levels of the innovation networks research, which are enterprises innovation networks and regional innovation networks (LI Jin-hua, 2009).
Up to now, scholars in or abroad have defined the concept of innovation from national innovation systems, innovation factors synergies, resources co-complements, industry clusters, and so on aspects, and have figured out some of the structures and characteristics of regional innovation networks.
It has been a main stream method to research regional innovation networks with social network analysis theory. Mitchell concludes in 1969 that people should take count of the scales, strictures, the interactive relationships and the process, and other factors to do network characteristic analysis. Granovetter defines one of the important characteristics, Strength, of the relationships in the networks in his famous paper The Strength of Weak Ties for the first time in 1973, and has made the beginning to concern about Relationships in network analysis.
After that, he brings in the concept of Embedded and defines between Relational Embedding and Structural Embedding in 1985. …