Local Integration of Refugees in Brazil
Moreira, Julia Bertino, Baeninger, Rosana, Forced Migration Review
Local integration is a complex economic, political, social and cultural process.
In October of 2009 there were 4,131 refugees from 72 nationalities living in Brazil. Of these, 3,822 arrived 'spontaneously', of whom nearly half came through their own networks, and 418 were resettled through the Brazilian programme, coordinated by the National Committee for Refugees (CONARE) with UNHCR support. The single largest group is from Angola (1,688) and the second largest from Colombia (598).
With its active programmes to resettle refugees, Brazil is considered as an 'emergent' resettlement country. The first programme was the Solidarity Resettlement Programme established in 1999 in agreement with UNHCR to settle refugees who were still persecuted or at risk of persecution or could not adapt to their first country of asylum. The second programme is the Regional Resettlement Programme, proposed by the Brazilian government in 2004, in order to protect refugees fleeing persecution and conflict in Latin America and also to help countries receiving large numbers of Colombians, such as Costa Rica and Ecuador.
The country does not set annual quotas for resettled refugees, not even by nationality. CONARE has prioritised two vulnerable groups: refugees without legal or physical protection and women at risk. In 2005, the Brazilian resettlement programme set up an innovative emergency procedure for refugees at immediate risk, whereby such refugees can have their applications examined within 72 hours and if they are granted asylum they can be resettled in Brazil within seven days.
CONARE is also responsible for analysing asylum applications and formulating public policies for refugees living in the country. The committee convenes meetings of government agencies, civil society organisations and UNHCR, which is able to contribute to the meetings but has no voting rights. CONARE estimates that the refugee recognition rate is 30%, which is comparable to international levels. The eligibility decisions have included gender persecution and have drawn special attention to children and other vulnerable groups at risk.
A recent research project1 interviewed refugee families who had arrived 'spontaneously' and were living in Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo during 2007 Most of the refugees reached the country through social networks, since 25.1% had a relative and 23.3% had a friend living in Brazil. In terms of labour market integration, 56.4% were working, although over half of these were working in informal job occupations. Only 2.8% were included in the government assistance programme (Bolsa Familia) and 11% were receiving financial support from UNHCR.
To be successfully integrated, refugees need employment, language skills and access to public services, as well as citizenship rights, duties and political participation and social relations with their community. Activities to facilitate local integration are mainly carried out by civil society organisations, although UNHCR and the government also take part. Caritas Arquidiocesana in Säo Paulo and Rio de Janeiro helps asylum seekers newly arrived in the country as well as refugees who have been living in Brazil for a long time. Asylum seekers may receive financial support from UNHCR for up to six months. The religious institutions provide them with legal and practical assistance, working with partners (including from the private sector) to offer legal support during the refugee status determination process, Portuguese lessons, employment training, food and dental care. Brazil has the largest support network for refugees in Latin America, with almost 100 local organisations involved.
In general, refugees benefit from the social services - such as education and health care - provided by the Brazilian government at federal, state and municipal levels. Nevertheless, there are a few specific services created to meet refugees' particular needs: a special programme for mental health care financially supported by CONARE, public housing for refugees living in Säo Paulo, and educational scholarships offered by the Federal University of Minas Gerais and the Federal University of Juiz de Fora. …