Comparative Ethical Analysis among Evidence-Based, Scientific-Based, and Opinion-Based Clinical Interventions in Commercialized Medicine

By Parhizgar, Fuzhan F.; Parhizgar, Robert R. et al. | Competition Forum, July 1, 2010 | Go to article overview

Comparative Ethical Analysis among Evidence-Based, Scientific-Based, and Opinion-Based Clinical Interventions in Commercialized Medicine


Parhizgar, Fuzhan F., Parhizgar, Robert R., Parhizgar, Suzan S., Parhizgar, Kamal Dean, Competition Forum


EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Our purpose in this article is to discuss, analyze, and present triadic ethical philosophies in clinical interventions: (1) physiological, social, and spiritual identities, (2) biosciences, biotechnologies, and alternative medicine, and (3) goodness without defection and deformity, badness associated with defection, deformity, and nastiness, and a duel entity between goodness and badness, normal and abnormal, and niceties and nastiness. Integration of occupational responsibilities and professional medical practices, synergistic biomedical technologies, and commercialized pharmaceutical products has changed societal values and practices of medicine. The major issue is related to the competitiveness between commercial medicine and professional medicine. It has created confrontations between traditional medicine and modern practices of medicine. In other words, in some countries having access to the medical facilities and professional experts has been perceived as a "privilege" or an "entitlement" while in others it is assumed as "a natural right" that should be recognized by all governmental authorities, business entities, and citizens in order to maintain and protect human dignity.

Keywords: Scientific-based medicine, Evidence-based medicine, Opinion-based medicine, Alternative medicine, Traditional medicine, Herbal medicine, Biosophy, Biophilia,

INTRODUCTION

In our modem world many innovative scientific medical procedures and synthetic pharmaceutical products through advancement of biosciences and developments of biotechnologies begin by being thrust upon researchers involved in discovering alternative prognoses and treatments (e. g., cloning, stem cell therapies, genetic modifications, body part transplantation, etc.). Interest in non-scientific complementary and alternative medicine (traditional) has grown considerably over the past decades. Patients are choosing complementary alternative medicine because the basic principles of these modalities are congruent with their life values and philosophical beliefs. It is a fact that we as human beings are living within three major environments: (1) materialistic, (2) spiritualistic, and (3) social. Within each cluster, we search for prosperous promises that are not provided by other alternatives. As much as the nature of pain and suffering exponentially increases, patients tend to choose complementary and alternative medicine more and very often they do not inform their physicians and clinicians. Epistemologically, there are different biosophical paths of thinking and practicing medicine namely; enhancement of human life through bypass open heart surgeries, beautification and augmentation of somatic human body organs, advancement in pragmatic knowledge through Gestalt therapy, psycho-mental meditation, and expansion of pleasurable events in consumption of synthetic pills and capsules. All of the above synergistic objectives can serve different segments of societies according to patients' wish lists. Nevertheless, some of the above medical visions and missions may raise criticism of ethicists and moralists who question the beneficial end results of these types of complementary and alternative medical services.

The major ethical and moral objections between opposing groups is related to being between those who oppose the means and those who laud the end. In order to get to a middle ground of fairness, we need to examine a means of assurance that a particular activity of medical intervention is worthy to justify the worthwhile end results. On the basis of scientific intellectual deliberations and ethical and moral convictions, such debatable issues should be analyzed within categorical triadic dimensions of biosophical perceptions concerning medical logic and its inherent assumptions concerning rendering services and gaining legitimate profits from clinical interventions.

MEDICINE AND CULTURE

Medicine has a long complex and adventurous history in human culture. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited article

Comparative Ethical Analysis among Evidence-Based, Scientific-Based, and Opinion-Based Clinical Interventions in Commercialized Medicine
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this article
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.