Transplanting Literati Painting into the Modern Art School System: Guohua Education at the Shanghai Fine Arts College, 1924-1937
Zheng, Jane, Studies in Art Education
The term guohua emerged in the late Qing period (18th-19th century). Guohua uses traditional Chinese media such as brush and ink on xuan paper (a particular traditional Chinese paper), and generally, adheres to principles and theories of literati painting. It thus resembles the artistic representations found in literati painting.1 In 20thcentury Chinese painting history studies, the debate on the guohua issue is concerned with whether guohua is a modern phenomenon. For a long time, the English translation for guohua was "traditional (Chinese) painting," and guohua was viewed as "conservative" or "not modern," antithetical to yanghua or xihua (Western-influenced Chinese painting) (Sullivan, 1959, 1996; Kao, 1972).
The following scholars propose that guohua is not completely "traditional." Hobsbawn and Ranger (1983) believe that guohua is closely related to but distanced from the tradition. Wong (2006) argues that guohua is a modern phenomenon, though inextricably linked to the tradition in cross-cultural interactions. Shen (1996) suggests that guohua encompasses some innovative reforms (e.g. integrating epigraphic and calligraphic skills into painting skills), and that these reforms were made when guohua painters responded to Western influences. Andrews and Shen (2002) maintain that guohua is a type of "quasi-traditional Chinese painting," and its practice is an active, "self-conscious, idealistic, and even modern enterprise." Wong (2006) uses a new English term, "national-style painting," to describe guohua.
These discussions have identified the main forces that drove the modernization of literati painting as being individual artists who advocated the political meaning of guohua as a national symbol (Shen, 1996; Wong, 2006) and artists who obtained an overseas educational background in Europe and Japan (Wong, 2006). The majority of Chinese painters, who practised guohua, however, did not have an overseas educational background.2 Also, the literati painting tradition is characterized by a pursuit of personal freedom from the political world (Fong, 1993), and many guohua painters followed this tradition. A question remains as to whether those painters without overseas educational background or political interests played any role in transforming literati painting into guohua.
From the 1 990s, one cohort of scholars began to be interested in the interaction of culture, society, the economy, politics, and the changing forces in the Chinese art world (e.g., Lee, 1989; Waara, 1994; Hay, 1998). In particular, the recent discourse on "artistic institutions or institution-like structures" (AAS, 1999, 2005) offers a new lens through which to explore modernity in Chinese painting. The major transition in 20th-century Chinese art is believed not only to lie in the nature of art itself, but also in the art world that involved the majority of ordinary painters without overseas educational background or political interests. Institutions that dominated the 20th-century Chinese art world, including magazines, museums, schools, dealers, and auction houses served the artists and their patrons, and through these "modernity in its various guises" could be recognized (AAS, 1999).
This research studies the "art school" as a category of art institution. It situates the research in the context of Shanghai, a city which rose to be the center of the literati tradition in art from the Late Qing period (1644-1911) and continued its influence into the Republican period (1912-1949). It focuses upon the Shanghai Fine Arts College3 because the College was the most important private art school in Republican China. Moreover, as one of the early art schools to found a Chinese Painting Department, it set the pattern of guohua education which profoundly influenced other Chinese art schools up to the present day.4 This article examines the institutionalization of literati painting and discusses the role that the College played in this process during the 1920s and 1930s. …