Norms and Sex Differences for the Standard Progressive Matrices in Libya

By Al-Shahomee, Alsedig Abdalgadr; Lynn, Richard | Mankind Quarterly, Fall 2010 | Go to article overview

Norms and Sex Differences for the Standard Progressive Matrices in Libya


Al-Shahomee, Alsedig Abdalgadr, Lynn, Richard, Mankind Quarterly


Results are reported for a standardization of the Standard Progressive Matrices in Libya. The sample consisted of 1800 children, comprising 180 (90 boys and 90 girls) for each year of age for 8-17 year olds. The test had high reliability and adequate validity. Factor analysis revealed the presence of a strong general factor interpreted as Spearman's g. Girls obtained a significantly higher mean than boys at age 10, while boys obtained higher means at ages 15 through 17. The variability was generally greater among girls than among boys. In relation to British norms, the sample obtained a mean IQ of 82.7, which is reduced to 78 if an adjustment is made for a Flynn effect increase in Britain of 2 IQ points per decade. The younger Libyan children performed better than older children, relative to British norms.

Key Words: Intelligence; Progressive Matrices; Libya; Sex differences; Variability.

Raven's Progressive Matrices test (RPM, Raven, 1939; Raven et al., 2000) is the most widely used test of intelligence in numerous countries throughout the world. Several hundred studies that have used the test are summarized in Lynn (2006). One reason for the popularity of the test is that it is non-verbal and can therefore be applied cross-culturally, while verbal tests are more culture specific and preclude cross-cultural comparisons. Another reason for the popularity of the test is that it is considered to be an excellent test of g, the general factor present in all cognitive tasks that was first identified by Spearman (1904) and is largely a measure of reasoning ability (e.g. Carroll, 1993; Jensen, 1998; McGrew & Flanagan, 1998).

Although the Progressive Matrices have been administered in many countries, few studies have been done in the countries of North Africa. The only countries in this region for which normative data exist are Egypt, Tunisia, and Libya. Abdel-Khalek (1988) reported normative data for the Standard Progressive Matrices for Egypt, on which Egyptian children obtained an average British IQ of 83. Normative intelligence data for Tunisia have been reported by Abdel-Khalek & Raven (2006). The results come from a standardization of the Standard Progressive Matrices on adults carried out in 2001.The sample size was 509 and a score of 47 is given as the 50th percentile of 20 year olds, together with a score of 54 for British 20 year olds obtained in the 1992 standardization. The raw score difference of 7 is equivalent to approximately 14 IQ points, giving the Tunisian sample an IQ of 86. If a Flynn effect adjustment is made for an increase in the British IQ of 2 IQ points per decade, the British IQ will have increased by 2 IQ points from 1992 to 2001. Hence the difference between Britain and Tunisia will become 16 IQ points, reducing the Tunisian mean to 84, in relation to a British IQ of 100.

A further calculation of the IQ in Tunisia has been made by Rindermann (2007). He adopted scores obtained in the 2003 PISA study of mathematics in 15 year old school students as a measure of intelligence. In this study the mean score of school students in 29 economically developed OECD countries was 489 (sd=104), and the mean score of Tunisian school students was 359 (sd=82). The difference between the economically developed countries and the Tunisians is 1.40 sd units, equivalent to an IQ difference of 21 IQ points, and therefore giving an IQ of 79 for Tunisia in relation to 100 for the 29 OECD countries. This calculation confirms earlier studies reviewed in Lynn & Vanhanen (2002, 2006) showing that the use of tests of mathematics as proxies for intelligence tends to magnify the between-country differences obtained from IQ tests. A more recent study of 86 countries found that the standard deviation between countries, relative to standard deviations within countries, was nearly 49% larger for scholastic achievement tests than for "IQ tests" (Lynn & Meisenberg, in press). Nevertheless, the results from the Standard Progressive Matrices and from the mathematics test are broadly consistent for Tunisia, giving IQs of 84 and 79, respectively. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Norms and Sex Differences for the Standard Progressive Matrices in Libya
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Author Advanced search

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.