Social Capital Moderating Roles towards Relationship of Motives, Personality and Organizational Citizenship Behavior: Cases in Indonesian Banking Industry

By Ariani, D. Wahyu | The South East Asian Journal of Management, October 2010 | Go to article overview

Social Capital Moderating Roles towards Relationship of Motives, Personality and Organizational Citizenship Behavior: Cases in Indonesian Banking Industry


Ariani, D. Wahyu, The South East Asian Journal of Management


Introduction

The research employs variables that influence individual behavior, such as personal or dispositional variables based on the personality and attribution theory and situational variables based on social exchange theory. In terms of social exchange theory, positive working experience has impacts on the organizational citizenship behavior (OCB), although researchers in the field failed to show the existence of employees' rotation (Bowler and Brass, 2006). Strong friendship gives reciprocal effect and social exchange, and also drives organizational citizenship behavior. OCB is actually influenced by interdependent situation that the work setting becomes strong determinant and this influences the OCB in addition to the existence of personal characteristics such as personality (Comeau and Griffith, 2005).

This study integrates three theories that ground the antecedent of employees' organizational citizenship behavior assuming that, in general, individual behavior is driven by personal factors, such as personality and motives, and situational factors, such as relationship with others, trust and the existence of shared values. The combination of the two factors based on the three theories is an accordance with Mitchell and James (2001) who stated that building a better theory needs to integrate theory, design and analysis, so that falsification can be correctly carried out, both theoretically and methodologically.

Further, the explanations on dispositional and situational factors are not mutually exclusive (Gerhart, 2005). There are methods in relating one with the other (Cohrs, et al. 2006). The first is the influence of dispositional and situational factors to behavior both directly and simultaneously. Next factor is the spurious correlation between situational factor and behavior due to the dispositional factor. The third is the influence of dispositional factor towards behavior moderated by situational factor. Individual commits OCB when they know and trust each other, as well as sharing the same values. The influence of dispositional factors on behavior is moderated by situational factors. Besides, individual behaves because of certain drives or motives and he has a personality that supports the behavior.

Besides, judgments from different parties give different evaluation perspectives and provide valuable information that increases the validity of individual performance rating (Van der Heijden and Nijhof, 2004). Self and other ratings in the OCB give significant influence towards motives of carrying out the behavior in question (Finkelstein and Penner, 2004; Penner et al., 2005). Supervisor-rating was employed to minimize problems related to the bias resulted from using the self-rating by self reporting in judging a variable (Organ and Ryan, 1995).

The main objective of the research was to test the influence of social capital moderation towards the model of relations between core-self evaluation and three motives of organizational citizenship behavior application. The research was carried out by employing two raters in evaluating employees' OCBs. The theoretical and empirical results stated that individual performance had two dimensions, role-based performance or task performance and non role-based performance or OCB (Borman and Motowidlo, 1993). OCB is often considered as supporting factor in social and psychological environment in achieving task performance (Organ, 1997; Bergeron, 2005). Many moderating variables such as organizational, situational, and individual help to understand the relations of OCB antecedents with the behavior in question.

Literature Review

Organizational citizenship behavior

OCB is a unique aspect in individual's activities in a workplace. However, the activities are not formally required in work, independent, and not stated explicitly in the formal work procedures and in the waging system. Because of its independence, control decreases behaviors that do not belong to the roles (Niehoff and Moorman, 1993). …

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