Internationalization of Higher Education: A Case Study on College Music Teachers' Intercultural Expertise
Lasonen, Johanna, International Education
INTERNATIONAL EDUCATION AND MULTICULTURALISM
Internationalization, which is a central objective of higher education, is apart of the globalization trend. In higher education, internationalization is measured, for example, in terms of international student and teacher exchange, work experience gained abroad, and the number of international publications. International education seems to be separate from the universities' internationalization practices.
The goals of international education are based on the United Nations Declaration of Human Rights and on the recommendations of other documents ratified by Finland (see Allahwerdi, 2001) and the United States. These goals have emphasized the peaceful coexistence of nations, human rights, equality and learning of foreign languages. Multicultural education refers to taking the population's diversity into account in education. At first, multicultural education was seen as a sub-domain of international education. Recently, the term "international education" is more and more often replaced with "global education." It emphasizes skills, knowledge, attitudes and responsibility for the whole Earth and its understanding. As their common denominators, the trends of internationalization and globalization emphasize awareness of and shared responsibility for the diversity of the surrounding world. Today, multicultural education and intercultural education are no longer considered sub-domains of international education. Multiculturalism has a social aspect that is characteristic of societies that consist of multicultural peoples and their communities.
In Finland, multiculturalism in education started to gain emphasis in the 1990s, and intercultural learning came to the fore even later, whereas international education had been a focus much earlier. Especially after World War II, since the late 1940s, the notion of international education gained emphasis, As far as multicultural education is concerned, Finland lags a few decades behind more traditional immigration countries (e.g., the UK, Canada, and the USA). Increasing immigration to Finland has brought multiculturalism to the focus of education, although the traditional minority groups have been living in the country (the Romany, Sami, Tatars, Jews, Karelians, etc.) for a long time. Along with daily encounters with dissimilarity, people have realized that there is a need for intercultural learning, interaction skills and related instruction. Besides the structural factors of education, emphasis is put on the revision of process-, content-, and value-related components that would reflect the acceptance of social, cultural, ethnic, and linguistic diversity.
HUMAN CAPITAL AND INTERCULTURAL COMPETENCE
Expertise, with intercultural competence as a part of it, belongs to the category of immaterial capital (see Lasonen & Parikka, 2000). Human capital, which refers to an expert's competence as a resource in the labor market, consists of education, work experience and health. Social capital refers to social contacts and networks that help in building useful connections between persons and groups. In the development of competencies and in finding a job, for instance, we need different yet interrelated types of immaterial capital, both human and social (Salmenhaara, 2008).
Alitolppa-Niitamo (2004) analyzed the school achievement of Somali youngsters living in Finland with regard to human capital, social capital, and certain variables related to their host society (existing ethnic relations, labor market and institutions, government policy and programs as well as changing international borders). From the school achievement point of view, in this study human capital included parents' educational level, their attitudes to education, their socioeconomic status, their mental and physical health, students' prior education and literacy and language skills, and their immigrant documentation.
Musical expertise involves a wide range of competencies pertaining to musical theory, aesthetics, production and reception. …