Influence of Personality Types and Academic Procrastination on the Academic Achievements of Senior Secondary School Adolescents in Ibadan Metropolis
Adesina, O J, Ife Psychologia
This study examined the influence of personality type and academic procrastination on the Academic Achievement of Senior Secondary School students in Ibadan metropolis. Sample consisted of 200 senior secondary school students in Ibadan metropolis. Two research instruments were used: namely academic procrastination scale and the Big - 5 factor scale. The reliability coefficient of the instruments were 0.76 and 0.72 and validated by the authors respectively. Three null hypotheses were formulated and tested at 0.05 level of significant. The results revealed in H0^sub 1^ that there is a significant difference in the personality types and academic procrastination of senior secondary school adolescent students. Also H0^sub 2^ revealed a significant difference in the gender academic achievement and H0^sub 3^ also revealed a significant difference in age. Recommendations and conclusion were made based on the findings.
The concept of personality is complex to define. This explains why psychologists have tried to define the term personality in different ways. Catell (1933) developed a theory which discusses personality in terms of consistent events measurable by means of a personality inventory. Catell proposed the use of three types of data to collect information from people. This according to Catell include: the L-data which stands for Liferecord and contains the records of their absence from work and the recorded indicators of their absence from work and other recorded indicators of personality.
The Q - data entails the research participants to rate their own personalities. The I-data involves the use of objective tests in which the person responds to questions.
Catell further uses a statistical technique to analyse personality into two distinctive types.
i) surface trait which is obvious and can easily be identified by other people.
ii) source traits: This personality trait is much less visible and it underlies several different aspects of the person's behaviour.
Similarly, Norman (2005) describes how almost all the different traits measured and identified by personality tests could be group into five basic factors. These are: surgency, stability, agreeableness, conscientiousness and culture.
Rogers (1987) in describing personality using the term "full functioning" states the following qualities:
(i) openness to experience
(ii) existential living
(iii) organic trusting
(iv) experimental freedom
Freud (1939) in describing personality uses the Id, the Ego and the Super Ego. In this analysis, Freud further lists three kinds of anxieties. They include: realistic, anxiety, which is normally refers to as fear. The second one is the moral anxiety which an individual feels when there is internalized threat. The last one is the neurotic anxiety, which is the fear of being overwhelmed by impulses from the Id.
However, the Big five personality traits are five broad factors or dimensions of personality developed through lexical analysis. The model is considered to be the most comprehensive empirical or data driven enquiry into personality. These five factors are openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness and neuroticism. This Big five factors and it constituent traits can be summarized thus:
i) Openness: appreciation for art, emotion, adventure, unusual ideas, imagination, curiosity and variety of experience,
ii) Conscientiousness: a tendency to show self-discipline, act dutifully, and aim for achievement.
iii) Extroversion: energy, compassionate, cooperative emotions rather than suspicion and antagonistic towards others.
iv) Neuroticism: a tendency to experience unpleasant emotions easily such as longer anxiety, depression or vulnerability.
Higgins (1996) in a twin studies found an overall habitability for the Big five traits as follows: openness 57%, extraversion 54%, conscientiousness 49%, neuroticism 48%, agreeableness 42%. …