The Economic Costs of the Civil War
Folsom, Burton, Freeman
Even after 150 years, the Civil War evokes memories of great men and great battles. Certainly that war was a milestone in U.S. history, and on the plus side it reunited the nation and freed the slaves.
Few historians, however, describe the costs of the "war. Not just the 620,000 individuals who died, or the devastation to southern states, but the economic costs of waging total war. What was the economic impact of the Civil War on American life?
The first and most important point is that the Civil War was expensive. In 1860 the U.S. national debt was $65 million. To put that in perspective, the national debt in 1789, the year George Washington took office, was $77 million. In other words, from 1789 to 1860, the United States spanned the continent, fought two major wars, and began its industrial growth - all the while reducing its national debt.
We had limited government, few federal expenses, and low taxes. In 1860, on the eve of war, almost all federal revenue derived from the tariff. We had no income tax, no estate tax, and no excise taxes. Even the hated whiskey tax was gone. We had seemingly fulfilled Thomas Jefferson's vision: "What farmer, what mechanic, what laborer ever sees a tax-gatherer of the United States?"
Four years of civil war changed all that forever. In 1865 the national debt stood at $2.7 billion. Just the annual interest on that debt was more than twice our entire national budget in 1860. In fact, that Civil War debt is almost twice what the federal government spent before 1860.
What's worse, Jefferson's vision had become a nightmare. The United States had a progressive income tax, an estate tax, and excise taxes as well. The revenue department had greatly expanded, and tax-gatherers were a big part of the federal bureaucracy.
Furthermore, our currency was tainted. The Union government had issued more than $430 million in paper money (greenbacks) and demanded it be legal tender for all debts. No gold backed the notes.
The military side of the Civil War ended when Generals Ulysses S. Grant and Robert E. Lee shook hands at Appomattox Court House. But the economic side of the war endured for generations. The change is seen in the annual budgets before and after the war. The 1860 federal budget was $63 million, but after the war, annual budgets regularly exceeded $300 million. Why the sharp increase?
First, the aftermath of war was expensive. Reconstruction governments brought bureaucrats to the South to spend money on reunion. More than that, federal pensions to Union veterans became by far the largest item in the federal budget (except for the interest payment on the Civil War debt itself). Pensions are part of the costs of war, but the payments are imposed on future generations. In the case of the Civil War, veterans received pensions only if they sustained injuries severe enough to keep them from holding a job. Also, widows received pensions if they remained unmarried, as did their children until they became adults. Confederates, of course, received no federal pensions.
Pensions and Tensions
The Civil War pensions shaped political life in America for the rest of the century. First, northern states benefitted from pension dollars at the expense of southern states. That kept sectional tensions high. Second, Republicans "waved the bloody shirt" and blamed Democrats for the war. Republican presidents had incentives to keep the pension system strong, and the Grand Army of the Republic (GAR) lobbied to get as much money for veterans as possible.
The federal government established pension boards to determine whether injuries to veterans warranted a pension. But the issue was complex. Sometimes, veterans created or faked injuries; others argued that injuries received after the war - for example, falling off of a ladder while fixing a roof - were really war injuries. If the pension board turned down an application, the veteran sometimes pleaded to his congressman - who was often able to get a special pension for his constituent through Congress. …