On: Attachment and Psychoanalysis; Working Models and Part-Object Transferences/On: Response to Dr Szajnberg

By Szajnberg, Nathan; Wachtel, Paul L. | International Journal of Psychoanalysis, April 2011 | Go to article overview

On: Attachment and Psychoanalysis; Working Models and Part-Object Transferences/On: Response to Dr Szajnberg


Szajnberg, Nathan, Wachtel, Paul L., International Journal of Psychoanalysis


Dear Editors,

Wachtel applies attachment theory to psychoanalytic work, presenting a case and re-conceptualizing concepts of one- and two-person constructs (Wachtel, 2010). In our 1997 paper, The transference refracted through the lens of attachment (Szajnberg and Crittenden, 1997), we presented three cases to demonstrate the impact of working models of attachment on the transference over the course of psychoanalyses and the implications for interpretive technique. Each case presented with different working models of attachment early in the work, that is, internal representations of how the analysand expected intimate relations to operate during periods of anxiety: the first with Insecure, Enmeshed ? Angry, the second with Insecure, Avoidant ? Defended and the third with Secure attachment. But for the second case, an adolescent, we demonstrated how his working model of attachment shifted over time of the treatment from initial Insecure Avoidant to a raucous period of Insecure, Enmeshed ? Angry to resolution with Secure attachment at the end of four years' treatment. (A more complete account is in, Szajnberg, 1993.) In more classical analytic terms, a first approximation is to describe these as shifts from paternal to maternal transferences in the early and midphases.

We suggested in 1997 that individuals may have 'nesting' models of attachment, building on Bowlby's idea of attachment constructs may vary with different parents, work that has been demonstrated empirically by subsequent researchers (Fonagy, 2001). This is a different way of conceptualizing and integrating attachment theory with psychoanalysis, specifically with object relations theory. Internal models of attachment may be different with representations of a father versus mother, and in a more complicated manner, with part-object representations of significant others. In the transference, therefore, this would be manifested during moments of anxiety, as part-object transferences towards the analyst, with their associated working models of attachment.

Bowlby (1969, 1973, 1980) argues that we have working models of how to reach out for security and comfort during periods of anxiety. These are established very early (relying on ethology research at first, later confirmed by Ainsworth and colleagues as present in human infants). At some developmental point (apparently before 5 years) the child relies predominately upon one working model (perhaps more frequently that of the primary caregiver) and generalizes this to significant others. But, from our paper and, in particular the adolescent case, we suggest that other latent working models may come to the fore, depending on the part-object mental representation operating at the moment. Finally, with successful analytic work it is possible to shift working models, as Bowlby also suggested could be the case with powerful experiences in development, which has been demonstrated by Waters and others (Sroufe et al., 2005). Bowlby's second and third volumes address particularly the nature of separation and anxiety, sadness and loss, emotions that will be particularly evocative in the transference.

This alternative approach relies more upon mental representations of the individual (which is predominately the nature of psychoanalytic work in the consulting room). …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

On: Attachment and Psychoanalysis; Working Models and Part-Object Transferences/On: Response to Dr Szajnberg
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Author Advanced search

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.