Spanish Version of the Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire (PRMQ-S)

By González-Ramírez, Mónica Teresa; Mendoza-González, María Eugenia | The Spanish Journal of Psychology, January 1, 2011 | Go to article overview

Spanish Version of the Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire (PRMQ-S)


González-Ramírez, Mónica Teresa, Mendoza-González, María Eugenia, The Spanish Journal of Psychology


The concept of prospective memory is relatively recent. Thus, it is necessary to have instruments to assess it, in interaction with retrospective memory. The Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire (PRMQ; Smith et al., 2000) is an instrument that has been effectively used for assessment in several languages. Nevertheless, there is still no Spanish adaptation. The aim of this study was to translate the PRMQ and obtain information about its psychometric properties. A back translation process was applied to the PRMQ. The resulting PRMQ-S was self-administered to 520 subjects after applying the pilot test. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to test competing models of its latent structure. Internal consistency was evaluated using Cronbach's alpha. The results showed an adequate internal consistency of the total scale and the Prospective and Retrospective scales were: .89, .84 and .76, respectively. The factor structure was compared with the original study. Our results suggested a disagreement with the tripartite model defended by the authors of the PRMQ. Since there is a high correlation between two factors in the bi-factor model, and the tripartite model showed non-significant loadings to the two specific factors, we recommend that the PRMQ-S be used as one general memory score. We demonstrated adequate psychometric properties of the PRMQ-S if it is used as unique measurement of memory failures. These results are relevant due to the need for a short and accurate instrument in our language that explores memory failures, which has a major impact on the activities of daily living.

Keywords: memory, PRMQ-S, prospective memory, retrospective memory.

El concepto de memoria prospectiva es relativamente reciente. Por lo que es necesario contar con instrumentos para evaluarla en interacción con la memoria retrospectiva. El Cuestionario de Memoria Prospectiva y retrospectiva (PRMQ; Smith et al., 2000) es un instrumento que ha sido eficientemente utilizado para evaluarlas, en varios idiomas. Sin embargo, no se detectó versión alguna en español de dicho cuestionario. El propósito de este estudio fue traducir el PRMQ y obtener información sobre sus propiedades psicométricas. Un proceso de traducción inversa fue aplicado al PRMQ, el resultante PRMQ-S se aplicó a 520 personas, después de una prueba piloto. Para los análisis se utilizó el Análisis Factorial Confirmatorio y el Alfa de Cronbach. Los resultados reflejaron adecuada consistencia interna de la escala completa y de las subescalas de memoria prospectiva y retrospectiva: .89, .84 y .76, respectivamente. La estructura factorial fue comparada con el estudio original. Nuestros resultados sugieren un desacuerdo con el modelo tripartito defendido por los autores del PRMQ. La fuerte correlación entre los dos factores en el modelo bifactorial y el modelo tripartito, que muestra pesos factoriales no significativos, dan la pauta para recomendar que el PRMQ-S sea utilizado como un puntaje general de memoria. Nuestros resultados demuestran adecuadas propiedades psicométricas al ser utilizado como una medida única de fallos en la memoria. Estos resultados son relevantes debido a la necesidad de un instrumento breve en español que evalúe los fallos en la memoria que afectan el desempeño en las actividades cotidianas.

Palabras clave: memoria, PRMQ-S, memoria prospectiva, memoria retrospectiva.

Remembering what to do and when to do something is a crucial task in daily life. These abilities are involved in activities as simple as remembering to buy milk or take medications and which medicine to take. Memory of intentions has been studied since 1971 by Loftus E., but it was not until 1996 that prospective memory was investigated in detail. In 2000, there were more than 100 articles published about this topic. It was in that year that the First International Conference on Prospective Memory was held in response to the growth of research in this field (Ellis & Kvavilashvili, 2000). …

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