The Effect of Social & Token Economy Reinforcements on Academic Achievement of 9th Grade Boy Students with Intellectual Disabilities in a Science Course

By Mirzamani, Seyed-Mahmood; Ashoori, Mohammad et al. | Iranian Journal of Psychiatry, Winter 2011 | Go to article overview

The Effect of Social & Token Economy Reinforcements on Academic Achievement of 9th Grade Boy Students with Intellectual Disabilities in a Science Course


Mirzamani, Seyed-Mahmood, Ashoori, Mohammad, Sereshki, Narges Adib, Iranian Journal of Psychiatry


Objective: This study investigates the effect of social and token economy reinforcements on academic achievement of 9th grade boy students with intellectual disabilities in an experimental science class in Tehran Province.

Method: The method used for this study was experimental by pre-test, post- test with a control group. The boy students with intellectual disabilities from three junior high schools participated in this study. The sample consisted of thirty, 9th grade boy students with intellectual disabilities in the selected schools; the schools were chosen by the multistage cluster method. To measure the progress of students in the science class, a teacher made test and theWechsler intelligence test for matching the groups for IQ were used. To ensure validity, the content validity criteria depended tests calculated by the Lashe method and teachers' perspective were used. The reliability coefficient was obtained by the reliability coefficient of related tests; the percent agreement method and the obtained data were analyzed using one-way variance analysis and Shefe prosecution test.

Results: The results showed that there was a significant increase in academic achievement of students with intellectual disabilities when using token economy than using social reinforcements (p =0/002) compared with the control group (p>0.001). Also, when using social reinforcements, the academic achievement of students was more than the control group (p=0.021).

Conclusion: Token economy and social reinforcements increased the academic achievement of students with intellectual disabilities in the science class; and also the effect of token economy reinforcements was more than social reinforcements on the subjects.

Key words: Intellectual disability, reinforcements, social reinforcements, token reinforcements.

Iran J Psychiatry 2011; 6:25-30

Those with significant limitations in intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior whose problems are created before they reach 18, are categorized as having intellectual disability (1). This group form about 2 to 3 percent of the population of every society (2). Due to the fact that mentally retarded students have difficulty learning abstract material, objectivity should be emphasized in their training, and they must observe the outcome of their behavior immediately (3). Therefore, educational methods that emphasize the objectivity and outcome of behavior for mentally retarded students will have more occasions. In operant behaviorism, outcomes play an important role in learning a new behavior (4). In operant behaviorism, motivation comes in from understanding the relationship between behavior and outcome (5). In this approach, the outcome of behavior will be reinforcement that in

general can be divided in two categories of internal and external, and may be positive or negative. External reinforcement includes the types of phenomena, objects and events that are outside the individual, such as score, money, food, etc (4). They may also be called rewards (6). The positive reinforcements can be defined as social reinforcements and token economy reinforcements

Social reinforcements (including attention, appreciation and encouragement), which are often rewarded by toys or food are more valuable. Other samples, fondling, and referring to the shoulder like to encourage students, encouraging words (fore others), to sign consent nod, or smile and smile with approval means a lot that can be (7). All teachers know when students appreciated because of their positive behavior; they tend less to search and considering inappropriate behavior. In contrast, when a student trying to be overlooked considering, the probability of learning disturbance increases (8). In exchange for giving the award to achieve optimal activity and a strong tendency towards it has caused many researchers to think that instead of just the main stimulus causing extraneous stimulus to motivate the students to be (Weeks, 2006). …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

The Effect of Social & Token Economy Reinforcements on Academic Achievement of 9th Grade Boy Students with Intellectual Disabilities in a Science Course
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.