Psychometric Properties of "Young Schema Questionnaire-Short Form 3" in a Turkish Adolescent Sample

By Saritas, Dilek; Gençöz, Tülin | Journal of Evidence-Based Psychotherapies, March 2011 | Go to article overview

Psychometric Properties of "Young Schema Questionnaire-Short Form 3" in a Turkish Adolescent Sample


Saritas, Dilek, Gençöz, Tülin, Journal of Evidence-Based Psychotherapies


Abstract

The aim of this study was to explore the psychometric properties of the Young Schema Questionnaire-Short Form 3 (YSQ-SF3) among Turkish adolescents. A total of 356 high school students (198 females and 158 males) whose ages ranged between 15 and 18 participated in the study, and were administered the YSQ-SF3, the Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-T), the Trait Anger Inventory (ANGT), and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). Higher-order factor analysis run using the original 18 Early maladaptive Schemas (EMSs) revealed three internally consistent higher-order factors (i.e., schema domains) which were named Impaired Limits-Exaggerated Standards, Disconnection-Rejection, and Impaired Autonomy-Other Directedness. Concurrent validity analyses indicated that even after controlling for the effects of positive and negative affect, the Impaired Limits-Exaggerated Standards schema domain was significantly associated with anger, while Disconnection-Rejection and Impaired Autonomy-Other Directedness schema domains were significantly associated with anxiety. Findings are discussed in line with the literature.

Keywords: Early maladaptive schemas, Adolescent, Young Schema Questionnaire (YSQ)

Introduction

It has been proposed that early childhood experiences with significant others lead to organized thoughts and feelings about self, others and the world, which shape the way individuals perceive and respond to new experiences (Segal, 1988). These organized thoughts, feelings and behaviors were named schemas. According to Young (1999, p. 9), Early Maladaptive Schemas (EMSs) are "extremely stable and enduring themes that develop during childhood, elaborated throughout an individual's lifetime, and dysfunctional to a significant degree". Moreover, the tendency to overvalue the information consistent with the schemas or to neglect the one inconsistent with the schemas strengthens them, and thus leads to the maintenance of EMSs. Young (1999) proposed that there were 18 different schemas within five main domains.

Young, Klosko and Weishaar (2003) called the first schema domain "Disconnection and Rejection" which refers to the unsatisfied needs of acceptance, security, safety, stability, and nurturing. These needs are not provided by parents in a predictable way. Generally, the family environment is cold, rejecting, abusive, unpredictable, and explosive. This schema domain includes schemas of abandonment / instability, mistrust / abuse, emotional deprivation, defectiveness, and social isolation. The second domain has been called the "Impaired Autonomy and Performance" domain which refers to unsatisfied needs of separating and functioning independently. This schema domain involves schemas of dependency, vulnerability to harm or illness, enmeshment / undeveloped self, and failure. The third domain has been named "Impaired Limits" and refers to the characteristics of people who have trouble fulfilling responsibilities towards others and in respecting the rights of others since internal limits concerning reciprocity and self-discipline have not developed. Parents of these people tend to be generally overindulgent and permissive, and also they tend to give no direction, limits and discipline to their children. This schema domain comprises schemas of entitlement / grandiosity and insufficient self-control. The fourth domain has been termed the "Other Directedness" domain which refers to the characteristics of people giving top priority to meet the needs of others at the expense of sacrificing their own needs. They give high importance to gaining approval, maintaining emotional connection or avoiding discrimination. In the families of these people, love tends to be expressed conditionally, in that children must suppress their own needs and feelings in order to gain acceptance from parents. This schema domain consists of schemas of subjugation, self-sacrifice, and approval seeking. The fifth and last domain is "Over-vigilance and Inhibition" which refers to the characteristics of people who suppress their spontaneous feelings and impulses, and rather follow strict and internalized rigid rules and expectations at the expense of happiness, self-expression and relaxed and close relationships. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Psychometric Properties of "Young Schema Questionnaire-Short Form 3" in a Turkish Adolescent Sample
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

    Already a member? Log in now.