Examination of Single Subject Studies Conducted on Individuals with Disabilities by Using Self Management Strategies: A Meta Analysis Study*
Özkan, Serife Yücesoy, Sönmez, Mine, Kuram ve Uygulamada Egitim Bilimleri
Individuals with disabilities need to learn to control their own behaviors to rank among in the community. Selfmanagement strategies are developed for this purpose. These strategies include antecedent cue regulation, self-instruction, self-monitoring, self-evaluation, and self-reinforcement. In the literature, there are researches about the effectiveness of self-management strategies on teaching various behaviors to individuals with disabilities. In this study 40 single-subject research articles conducted with individuals with disabilities and published in peer-reviewed journals in between 1999-2008 have been examined. Articles primarily have been descriptively analyzed and then examined by use of meta-analysis as the computation of effect-size. Examining the findings of the descriptive analysis, it is found out that the most commonly used strategy is self-monitoring and strategies are mostly used for people aged between 7 and 17, which is referred to as school age. The PND score obtained in the studies that were examined was found as 87.23% on average for the behaviors that were wished to be increased, compared with PZD score an average of 43.96% for the behaviors that were desired to be decreased. According to the PND and PZD scores, it is possible to say that self-management strategies are effective for those behaviors that are desired to be increased, but they are doubtful/unstable in managing behaviors that are desired to be decreased. Findings have been interpreted and discussed by considering the literature and suggestions have been submitted for the implications and future researches.
Self-Management Strategies, Antecedent Cue Regulation, Self-Monitoring, Self-Instruction, Self-Evaluation, Self-Reinforcement, and Meta-Analysis
Individuals with disabilities need to be able to control their own behaviors to achieve independence successfully and to share a common environment with other people at school, work, and home and in society (Bigge, Stump, Spagna, & Silberman, 1999). There is an agreement in the literature that self management strategies are developed to enable the individuals with disabilities to control their own behaviors are effective on teaching many skills and behaviors. Self management strategies provide maintenance and generalization and thus they can be easily applied for use by individuals with disabilities (Baer, Fowler, & Carden Smith, 1984; McDougal & Brady, 1998; Yücesoy Özkan, 2009). Self-management can be defined as the responses made by people in order to maintain or change their own behaviors (Dickerson & Creedon, 1981) or the process used by people to control their own behaviors (Browder & Shapiro, 1985). Self management strategies are effective and efficient strategies used to enhance the abilities of students, involving antecedent cue regulation, self-instruction, selfmonitoring, self-evaluation and self-reinforcement (Brooks, Todd, Tofflemoyer, & Horner, 2003; Kerr & Nelson, 1998; McLaughlin, 1984; Schloss & Smith, 1994).).
Previous studies have reported that self management strategies are effective strategies and provide positive results for individuals with disabilities (Lee, Simpson, & Shogren, 2007; Lienerman, & Reid, 2006; Sutherland & Synder, 2007). The stronger aspects of self management strategies include reducing the dependency of individuals on other people and increasing their responsibilities, enabling them to develop self-trust (Lee et al., 2007), enhancing their quality of life (Wehmeyer, Agran, & Hughes, 2003), contributing to the generalization of what is learnt to natural conditions (Koegel, Koegel, Harrower, & Carter, 1999), and increasing the time available for learning (McDougal & Brady, 1998). In addition, self-management strategies can be effectively used in the class, frequently after being taught to students only once, they are easy to apply, and require only limited teacher effort and time (McLaughlin, Krappman, & Welsh, 1985). …