Effects of Post-Harvest Treatment Requirements on the Markets for Oysters

By Muth, Mary K.; Karns, Shawn A. et al. | Agricultural and Resource Economics Review, October 2002 | Go to article overview

Effects of Post-Harvest Treatment Requirements on the Markets for Oysters


Muth, Mary K., Karns, Shawn A., Anderson, Donald W., Murray, Brian C., Agricultural and Resource Economics Review


Because of public health concerns, regulators are considering requiring post-harvest treatment of halfshell and shucked oysters by wholesalers and processors. Two recently developed post-harvest treatment technologies may actually reduce the costs of producing shucked oysters, but would increase the costs of halfshell oysters. An interregional model of the wholesale oyster industry is developed to estimate the effects of treatment requirements on prices, output, and employment. If post-harvest treatment is required for all Gulf oysters, price increases are estimated to be less than 20% and, in some cases, prices decrease. Results indicate producer and consumer losses in the halfshell market are partially or more than offset by gains in the shucked market.

Key Words: equilibrium displacement model, oysters, post-harvest treatment, Vibrio vulnificus

Regulators of the shellfish industries have been considering whether to require wholesalers and processors of oysters to use post-harvest treatment technologies because of concerns regarding illnesses and deaths due to Vibrio vulnificus. V. vulnificus is a bacterium that is naturally present in marine environments and is not associated with environmental contamination [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 2000a]. Although fewer than 100 cases occur each year, the CDC estimates V vulnificus bloodstream infections are fatal about 50% of the time (CDC, 2000b). Most cases are associated with consumption of raw shellfish, particularly Gulf-harvested oysters served raw on the halfshell. However, anecdotal evidence suggests some cases may occur when individuals consume shucked oysters in raw form (see Muth et al., 2000).

In June 1998, the Center for Science in the Public Interest (CSPI) petitioned the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to require that all oysters intended for raw consumption be treated using a post-harvest treatment method proven to kill V. vulnificus bacteria (CSPI, 1998). In response to the petition, the Interstate Shellfish Sanitation Conference (ISSC) and the FDA are interested in determining the potential economic effects of requiring post-harvest treatment of oysters harvested from the Gulf region of the United States or for the entire United States.1

The available post-harvest treatment technologies include cryogenic individual quick freezing (IQF), cool pasteurization, and hydrostatic pressure.2 The companies currently using these technologies do so because they allow the companies to sell a differentiated (e.g., safer or longer shelf-life) product.

The cryogenic IQF process, which has been in use for over a decade, is employed by one large plant in Texas and two substantially smaller plants in Florida. For this process, oysters are opened and put on the halfshell, and are then passed through a freezer tunnel that rapidly cools the oysters using liquid CO2. However, the cryogenic IQF process has not been adapted for shucked oysters.

For the cool pasteurization process, which has been in use since 1997 by one plant in Louisiana, oysters are submerged in a computer-monitored tank of warm water, and then immediately cooled in a tank of cold water. Finally, the hydrostatic pressure process is a new technology, first used commercially in the summer of 1999 by one plant in Louisiana. In this process, oysters are loaded into a water-filled pressure chamber, which is then sealed and pressurized using an electric, 60 horsepower pump.3 For both the cool pasteurization and hydrostatic pressure processes, oysters intended for the halfshell market are banded prior to treatment, while oysters intended for the shucked market are immediately shucked and put into containers.

The objective of this study is to evaluate the potential economic effects of requiring post-harvest treatment of both raw halfshell and shucked oysters by processors and wholesalers of oysters. To evaluate the economic effects, we developed a simple aggregate deterministic model of the wholesale market for oysters. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Effects of Post-Harvest Treatment Requirements on the Markets for Oysters
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Author Advanced search

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.