Acculturation: State of the Science in Nursing

By Buscemi, Charles P. | Journal of Cultural Diversity, Summer 2011 | Go to article overview

Acculturation: State of the Science in Nursing


Buscemi, Charles P., Journal of Cultural Diversity


Abstract: With the onset of global migration, nurses are faced with dealing with cultures/rom around the world. Having an understanding oftranscultural nursing concepts and translating them to practice will be key to nurses meeting the needs of an ever changing patient population. Acculturation is one example of how transcultural nursing concepts need to be better understood. The purpose of this paper is to describe the state of the science of acculturation in terms of the nursing discipline. It offers a historical review and evolution of acculturation, uses in nursing theory, and clinical implications.

Key Words: Acculturation, Cultural Diversity, Nursing Science

The state of the science with regards to the concept of acculturation is slowly changing. Acculturation has been originally viewed as a unidimensional process, in which those individuals in contact with a host culture take on the characteristics of the new culture (Flannery Reise, & Yu, 2001). The unidimensional model of acculturation has been described as a linear relationship between an individual's original culture and the host culture (Szapocznik, Kurtines, & Fernandez, 1980). This unidirectional model describes acculturation as the shedding off of an old culture and the taking on of a new culture (Choi, 2001; Flannery, et al., 2001). It was believed that individuals only had two options; either they acculturated or they remained in their own culture (Choi, 2001).

However, as more research was done to understand the concept, a growing belief that acculturation was more than a unidirectional process was evolving (Choi, 2001; Flannery, et al., 2001). The focus on understanding immigrant groups was more on understanding cultural pluralism (Szapocznik, et al., 1980) where a more multidimensional model of acculturation was being accepted. Szapocznik (1980) describes this process with adaptation to a host culture as no longer requiring the rejection of the culture of origin.

This more complex view of acculturation evolved after realizing the limitations of the unidimensional model in capturing the multidimensional aspects of acculturation (Choi, 2001). The belief that the acquisition of some homogeneous or standard form of American culture by immigrant groups failed to capture the cultural change experienced at the individual level (Gibson, 2001).

A movement that describes acculturation as an uneven process that reflects intraethnic and intracultural diversity is growing (Déla Cruz, Padilla, & Augustin, 2000). Acculturation is being describes as a bidirectional process more and more (Choi, 2001; Dela Cruz, et al., 2000; Flannery, et al, 2001). The bidirectional process of acculturation involves the simultaneous acquiring, retaining or relinquishing of the characteristics of both the original and the host cultures (Dela Cruz, et al, 2000). Described as an orthogonal model of acculturation, it proposes biculturalism as the basis of the process (Getting & Beauvais, 1990-91).

The bicultural model assumes that acculturating individuals can maintain two different cultural identities simultaneously (Choi, 2001). Szapocznik (1980) describes the bicultural process as learning communication and negotiation skills in cultural contexts that involve separate sets of rules. The emphasis is now on the individual's ability to negotiate between the two cultural worlds rather than losing connection to the original culture (James, 1997).

Current researchers who are studying acculturation are accepting that it is a broad-ranging concept that includes not only changes in behavior, values, attitudes and identity, but social, economic and political transformations as well (Choi, 2001). The process of acculturative change will be shaped in part by where immigrants settle, the ethnic and social class composition of the communities in which they settle and the presence of co-ethnics within those communities (Gibson, 2001). …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited article

Acculturation: State of the Science in Nursing
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this article
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.