Developing a Classroom Management Plan Using a Tiered Approach
Sayeski, Kristin L., Brown, Monica R., Teaching Exceptional Children
Every year teachers plan for the management of students' behavior within their classrooms. Preparation may include developing a set of class rules, specifying procedures for daily tasks, or developing a consequence hierarchy (e.g., first infraction = X consequence, second infraction - Y consequence, etc.). Effective classroom management is essential for teaching, and it is not surprising to any teacher to find that management issues are frequently cited among reasons for leaving the field (Browers & Tomic, 2000; Ingersoll & Smith, 2003). Poor classroom management results in lost instructional time, feelings of inadequacy, and stress. In addition, special educators often have the responsibility of behavior change as a primary goal of instruction. In situations, teachers move beyond need to "manage" behavior and address challenging behaviors on to identify ways to transform maladaptive behavior into someappropriate and effective for students.
In this article, we present a (RTI) framework that both special and general education teachers can use in evaluating existing class structures and developing comprehensive classroom management plans for the purpose of managing challenging behaviors. (See box, "What Is RTI All About?") We applied the concept of a three-tiered model of support at the classroom level for individual (or team) teachers. Ultimately, this three-tier support structure would be a part of a schoolwide PBS model, but for many teachers or teams who are still addressing behaviors at a classroom level instead of schoolwide the RTI model provides an excellent structure to think about behavioral interventions. Special educators who teach in self-contained, resource, or collaborative classrooms can use the guidelines to create comprehensive classroom management plans. The framework provided includes evidence-based practices that teachers can apply at each tier of support. The plan incorporates guiding questions that direct teachers in selecting those practices that will best meet their context (i.e., grade level) and student population (i.e., students with and without disabilities, students at risk for school failure, students whose first language is not English).
Three-Tiered Model of Classroom Behavioral Supports
Before teachers can begin to implement a multileveled approach to classroom behavioral support, they should identify and evaluate existing classroom structures. This process provides a basis for determining where additional supports are needed. Specific, guiding questions include the following:
* What is the core, behavioral curriculum provided? How are behavioral expectations communicated to students through existing practices?
* What interventions or additional behavioral supports are in place? If students demonstrate challenging behaviors, what are the responses to these behaviors?
* What individualized, intensive behavioral supports are used for the most challenging of classroom behaviors? For those few students who demonstrate chronic, challenging behaviors, what consistent strategies are used across all classes and teachers?
These questions reflect the three tiers:
Tier 1: Preventative Classroom Management
Tier 2: First-Line Interventions
Tier 3: Intensive, Individualized Interventions
See Figure 1 for an overview of a "Comprehensive Classroom Management Plan: Three Tiered Model of Support Checklist. "
After reviewing the three guiding questions, Randi and Colleen decide that the standard classroom rules need to be updated to reflect specific concerns regarding respect for peers and preparedness for class. In addition, they realize that they have no way to recognize or reward those students who are doing well They want to work on the overall classroom environment-shift the focus from nagging to braggingbat they aren't sure where to begin.
Tier 1 : Preventative Classroom Management
What does a high-quality core curriculum in behavioral support look like? …