The Initial Development of the Multicultural Supervision Scale
Sangganjanavanich, Varunee Faii, Black, Linda L., Journal of Professional Counseling, Practice, Theory, & Research
The Multicultural Supervision Scale (MSS) was administered to 304 counselor educators and clinical supervisors across the United States. A three factor model comprising 39 items seemed to define the contours of the construct of multicultural issues in supervision. Three factors were defined as supervisory skills, supervisors' attitudes and beliefs, as well as stereotypes toward diverse populations. The findings suggested the scores on the MSS were valid and reliable. Overall, the MSS provided an important initial step in developing an assessment in multicultural supervision with reasonable factor structure, internal consistency, and having scientific and applied utility.
Keywords: multicultural supervision, supervisor assessment
Since the 1990s, the American Counseling Association (ACA) and the American Psychological Association (APA) recognized the importance of multiculturalism, pluralism, and diversification in counseling and psychology. The inclusion of multicultural standards in the respective codes of ethics calls all counselors and psychologists, who are guild members, to meet the standards of multicultural counseling when providing services (ACA, 2005; APA, 2002).
Multicultural competencies are one of the key domains of professional competencies counselors need to posses (Ponterotto, Casas, Suzuki, & Alexander, 1995). As a practitioner, the counselor expected to demonstrate multicultural counseling through their work with clients and colleagues. Counselors attain competency through a combination of knowledge, experience, training, and supervision (Bernard &c Goodyear, 2009). The process of supervision is central and essential to developing advanced counseling skills and in particular, multicultural counseling competencies. Thus, multiculturai supervision is a necessary process that should assist supervisees' comprehension of the influence of cultural issues on their personhood and in their clinical practice (Toporek, Ortega- Villalobos, & Pope-Davis, 2004).
The ACA and the Association for Counselor Education and Supervision (ACES) encouraged counselors and counselor educators to monitor and increase their multicultural counseling competencies and skills in order to adequately provide services to all clients. Yet, a gap exists between what counselor educators and supervisors believe is necessary and the production of credible research. Specifically lacking are an agreed upon definition and elements of multiculturai supervision competencies, as well as no empirically validated manner in which to measure multicultural supervision.
Quantitative and qualitative methods have been used to investigate perceptions of supervisees in cross-cultural and multicultural supervision. The findings from these studies suggested that the main task of supervisors was to address cultural issues between the client and counselor as well as the supervisee and supervisor (Constantine, 1997; Constantine, 2001; D'Andrea &c Daniels, 1997; Duan &c Rochlke, 2001; Hird et al., 2001; Leong & Wagner, 1994; Toporek et al., 2004). These researchers also noted in order for supervisors to be able to address cultural issues in supervision, the supervisors need to be cognizant of their personal levels of knowledge, attitudes, and skills in the areas of multicultural supervision competencies. These findings, in particular, influenced researchers who attempted to create instruments to measure knowledge, attitudes, and skills of supervision in multicultural supervision.
Wong and Wong (1999) first developed the Multicultural Supervision Competencies Questionnaire (MSCQ). In this measure the authors attempted to measure supervisors' knowledge, attitudes, and skills when conducting multicultural supervision. The MSCQ, however, focused on only the role race and ethnicity play in supervision and may be less widely used. Not long after the development of the MSCQ, Pope-Davis, Toporek, and Ortega (1999) proposed the Multicultural Supervision Scale (MSC) later called the Multicultural Supervision Inventory (MSI). …