Ambition and Realism for the BWC Review Conference: An Interview with President-Designate Paul Van Den IJssel
Meier, Oliver, Arms Control Today
Paul van den IJssel, the Dutch ambassador to the Conference on Disarmament, is president-designate of the 2011 Biological Weapons Convention (BWC) Review Conference, which is scheduled to take place December 5 to 22. He is a career diplomat in the Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
an den IJssel spoke with Arms Control Today by telephone from Geneva on September 30 about the upcoming review conference. He said he was seeing a "convergence of views" on many of the key issues, but emphasized that there still is much work to be done to close the remaining divisions on technical and political issues.
The interview was transcribed by Xiaodon Liang. It has been edited for clarity and length. The text of the full interview is available at www.armscontrol.org/interviews.
ACT: Mr. Ambassador, you have made "ambitious realism" the motto of framing expectations for the review conference. What specific decisions to strengthen the BWC do you think the review conference can adopt? On which issues do you expect states-parties to focus? During your consultations so far, have there been particular issues where you think more work is needed to achieve consensus?
Van den IJssel: Let's start with your last point. We are more than two months away from the review conference. A lot of work has been done, but of course a lot of work still has to be done as well. I think we have a lot of areas where we already have a kind of convergence of views. But there are also other areas where more work is to be done. Sometimes these are divisions of views that have to do with just technical issues, and sometimes there are slightly more politically based differences. So, that's as a general comment.
It is unlikely that more than two months away you will have already consensus on many issues. But I'm still very positive. I think we've seen thinking developing in capitals, in delegations, and I think there is a lot of common ground on which we can work. That's one.
What are the issues? Of course, it's up to the states-parties to say what the issues are. But I tried to speak to as many as possible and quite frequently. I go to the regional groups, and I go to seminars and workshops. What I read and what I hear is basically that we more or less agree on what the main topics are. I'll just give them in the order in which they come into my head; this is not a kind of priority order, certainly not my priority or the priority order of a particular state-party.
The first I want to mention is Article 10, the issue of assistance and cooperation on peaceful use of science and biotechnology. There is an interest among many states-parties to improve assistance and cooperation. So that is an issue, we will have to see how we can better organize ourselves. A lot is being done already, not always under the heading of the BWC because if you have public health programs, they may well be useful in the context of the BWC, but they probably are labeled under development cooperation or health cooperation.
Many countries would like to better organize that. Of course, there are different ideas on how to do that. Some say "I don't want to have that"; others say "I want to have that." That is a problem still. It is something we will have to look at.
Second issue is the issue of the intersessional process. We have five-year review conferences, but we also have had in the past years annual meetings, both on the expert level and of states-parties. We'll have to discuss how we're going to organize that in the next period, at least the next five years, perhaps longer, but certainly the next five years, and that is important.
First of all, we have to take a decision on that because if we don't take a decision, there will be no intersessional meetings. This is not something where we can just sit on our hands and then everything will continue as it was. So basically, the discussion is there on how best to organize ourselves and what issues we want to discuss. …