Migration, Economic Freedom, and Personal Freedom: An Empirical Analysis

By Cebula, Richard J.; Clark, J. R. | Journal of Private Enterprise, Fall 2011 | Go to article overview

Migration, Economic Freedom, and Personal Freedom: An Empirical Analysis


Cebula, Richard J., Clark, J. R., Journal of Private Enterprise


I. Introduction

Greater economic and personal/political freedoms are conducive to a private enterprise environment that promotes greater economic development and growth. Indeed, these freedoms promote private enterprise in a variety of ways, and Ashby (2010) demonstrated that both economic and political freedom are significant determinants of migration between countries. Furthermore, the greater the success of freedom in promoting private enterprise, the greater the degree to which higher living standards, higher economic growth, and more extensive economic development are manifested (Ali, 1997; Cole, 2003; Dawson, 2003; Farr, Lord, and Wolfenbarger, 1998; Goldsmith, 1995).

The economic history of the United States essentially began with the immigration of people, principally from Europe, in search of freedom, with freedom broadly interpreted to include religious freedom along with other forms of freedom. Arguably, the Revolutionary War was primarily based on a quest for greater political, personal, and economic freedom, and today the media abounds with examples of the extreme lengths to which individuals will go to gain those freedoms. Every day large numbers of illegal immigrants risk life and fortune, with significant numbers dying in the process, to cross international borders in search of a better life.

Freedom also significantly affects the decision to migrate between and among states. For example, as America was being settled and becoming home to increased numbers of persons seeking freedom in one form or another, movement to the West increased. After the Civil War, whose roots included varying perspectives on the issues of economic freedom (such as tariffs) and personal and political freedom (including slavery), migration to the West assumed greater proportions, initially taking the form of "pioneers" joining wagon trains and later promoted by the building of the railroad system into the West. The prospects of becoming economically independent and successful in an environment characterized by economic freedom and private enterprise such that one could reap the rewards of one's hard work, risk-taking, and ingenuity was a powerful magnet for both descendants of immigrants and to some degree even new immigrants to move to the West. Thus, historically, it appears that both immigration to the United States and subsequent internal migration across the United States, which itself was expanding its borders and influence to the Pacific, ultimately under the banner of "manifest destiny," was intimately linked to the interrelated phenomena of economic, personal, and political freedom and private enterprise (Vedder, 1976).

Migration determinants within the United States have been extensively researched, especially for the post World War II era (Percy, Hawkins, and Maier, 1995; Carrington, Detragiache, and Vishwanath, 1996; Nechyba, 2000; Conway and Houtenville, 1998, 2001; Chi and Voss, 2005; Cebula and Alexander, 2006; Partridge and Rickman, 2006; Francis, 2007; Landry et al., 2007; Schoolland, 2004; Subrick, Heap, and Mitchell, 2009). This continued research into migration can be attributed to a variety of factors, including concerns about gain or loss of tax base; increases or decreases in the demand for public schools, water and sewerage systems, and other public services; the identification of locations with better employment opportunities or better company expansion opportunities; and the shift in political power resulting from emerging internal migration patterns. The factors considered within the context of internal/ 'domestic migration determinants are extremely diverse. By and large, the mainstream migration literature finds migrants being attracted to areas with lower living costs, better employment and income prospects, lower state income taxes, and a warmer climate. However, Ashby (2007) demonstrated that states with higher relative economic freedom experience greater migration inflows through its direct impact on income and employment growth. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited article

Migration, Economic Freedom, and Personal Freedom: An Empirical Analysis
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this article
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.