Effect of Cooperative Learning on Achievement of Students in General Science at Secondary Level

By Parveen, Qaisara | International Education Studies, April 2012 | Go to article overview

Effect of Cooperative Learning on Achievement of Students in General Science at Secondary Level


Parveen, Qaisara, International Education Studies


Abstract

The aim of the study was to explore the effects of cooperative learning on General Science achievement among 9th class students. Based upon previous research literature it was hypothesized that significant difference existed between the mean posttest scores of General Science achievement of experimental group and control group. The pretest posttest control group design was chosen for the experiment. The study sample consisted of 36 students of 9th class who were equally distributed among experimental group and control group, matched on the basic of their annual examination at general science scores. The dependent variable of General Science achievement was measured through self-constructed 30-item achievement test used as a pretest as well as a posttest. The experiment group was taught through cooperative learning while control group was taught through traditional teaching. The material was used such as lesson plans, worksheets and quizzes, designed to implement cooperative learning methodology. The data were analyzed through mean, standard deviation and t-test and .05 was the selected level of significance. The main result of the study was that cooperative learning method is superior to traditional method in general science achievement of 9th grade students.

Keywords: Cooperative learning, Academic achievement, General science

1. Introduction

Teaching in not a mechanical process, it is an intricate, exciting and challenging job. Teaching is an art and truly fine teacher is an artist. Teaching requires a high degree of flexibility, adaptability and nimbleness of mint that goes far beyond the mechanical application of step by step procedure (Shamim, 1999). In fact group work means several students working together and working together does not necessarily involve cooperation. Cooperative learning in an arrangement in which students work in mixed ability groups and are awarded on the basis of the success of the group (Woolfolk, 2004).

In cooperative learning classrooms students work in small group and rewards are based on the entire group performance, this is a small group method or technique (Sprinthall and Sprinthall, 2000). Cooperative learning activities are carefully structured learning activities in which students are held accountable for their contribution, participation and learning , they are also provided incentives to work as team in teaching others and learning from others (Slavin, 2000). Cooperative learning is an instructional strategy in which students engage in activities that promote collaboration and teamwork. Individual achievement is sometimes over looked in favor of group accomplishment (Johnson et al, 1987).

2. Review of Related Literature

Slavin and others (1991) carried out research on STAD a type of cooperative learning. They used experimental design on students in their school. The sample of study was 139 students and the subject was social studies. The results of the study were positive and significant. Arbab (2003) investigated the effects of cooperative learning on the achievement of 6th class students in the subject of English. The sample comprised 36 students of 6th class equally placed in experimental group and control group on the basic of score obtained in the subject of English in previous annual examination in this experiment of four weeks, "Cooperative learning resulted in higher achievement as compared to routine method of teaching in English."

Parveen and others (2010) investigated the effect of cooperative learning on academic achievement of 8th grade students in the subject of social studies. The pre test post control group design was chosen for experiment. The study sample consisted of 35 students who were distributed among experimental group (N=18) and control group (N=17). The result of the study did not confirm research hypothesis. Cooperative learning was not found to be a better instructional strategy than routine method of instruction. …

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