The Influence of Cigarette Smoke on the Selected Bronchoalveolar Cells in Experiment

By Hurbánková, Marta; Cerná, Silvia et al. | Central European Journal of Public Health, March 2012 | Go to article overview

The Influence of Cigarette Smoke on the Selected Bronchoalveolar Cells in Experiment


Hurbánková, Marta, Cerná, Silvia, Beno, Milan, Wimmerová, Sona, Moricová, Stefánia, Central European Journal of Public Health


SUMMARY

The occurence of lung diseases (obstructive, malignant) resulting from smoking has an increasing tendency. The lung is the primary organ at risk from the effects of inhaled cigarette smoke and smoking has been implicated as a contributing factor to the causation of various respiratory diseases. The aim of presented work was to find out the subchronic effect of the 6-month exposure to cigarette smoke on the selected inflammatory and cytotoxic parameters of bronchoalveolar lavage in W rats and thus to contribute to understanding of the mechanism of action of tobacco smoke and/or path mechanism of lung injury developed after cigarette smoking. In special chamber, the animals smoked 8 standard research 1R1 type of cigarettes per day, except Saturdays and Sundays, during 6 months. The daily concentration of total particulate matter (TPM)/m^sup 3^ air for two hours per exposure requiring to burn eight cigarettes was 85 mg. Animals were sacrificed after the 6-month exposure and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed and selected inflammatory and cytotoxic BAL parameters were examined and compared with the control group. Following BAL parameters were investigated: the total cell and alveolar macrophages (AM) count in BAL, the differential cell count (% of AM, % of polymorphonuclears - PMN, % of lymphocytes - Ly), proportion of immature AM, proportion of bi-nucleated cells - BNC, viability, the phagocytic activity of AM, cytokines TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor alpha) and IL-1β (interleukin-1 beta). Conclusion: A) The 6-month smoking of eight cigarettes daily significantly changed prevailing number of examined BAL parameters; B) The presence of inflammatory and cytotoxic responses in lung tissue can probably signalize beginning or developing of disease process.

Key words: cigarette smoke, bronchoalveolar lavage parameters, inflammatory and cytotoxic bronchoalveolar parameters - cytokines

INTRODUCTION

More than 5 million people die every year from smokingrelated diseases. The mentioned diseases have furthermore a very important negative impact on the economy due to the loss caused by waste of labour power and increase of the health care and social care costs. Moreover, the high occurence of diseases caused by smoking inhibits the faster rise of the life expectancy of population.

Cigarette smoke contains an amount of chemicals which are very harmful for the health of smokers. By the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) cigarette smoke is classified as a human carcinogen - group 1 , which is very harmful not only for smokers, but for non-smokers who inhale tobacco smoke passively as well (1).

Cigarette smoke is an aerosol composed of a gaseous and particle phases. It is a complex mixture containing oxidants and various toxic substances. Many pollutants originating from environmental and industrial sources such as benzene, formaldehyde, lead or arsenic, also occur in cigarette smoke. Among circa 4,800 substances that have as yet been identified in tobacco smoke, there are 69 recognized carcinogens and a large number of toxic substances, some of them highly reactive (2, 3). The lung is the primary organ at risk from the effects of inhaled cigarette smoke and smoking has been implicated as a contributing factor to the causation of various respiratory diseases (lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases - COPD), cancer of the breast, brain, stomach, leukemia, lymphomas, coronary heart and peripheral vascular diseases, inflammation of the arteries, progressive narrowing of the vascular lumen, risk of developing myocardial infarction, etc., (3).

Alveolar macrophages (AM) play a significant role in response to tobacco smoke. In addition to being phagocytes, the AM are also important immuno-regulatory cells involved in the defense mechanisms as well as in the pathogenesis of numerous lung diseases (4, 5). They release various cytokines, reactive oxygen intermediates, and other mediators of the inflammatory reaction which are important modulators of cell growth and cell differentiation. …

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