The Relationship between Severity of Premenstrual Syndrome and Psychiatric Symptoms

By Firoozi, Reihane; Kafi, Mousa et al. | Iranian Journal of Psychiatry, Winter 2012 | Go to article overview

The Relationship between Severity of Premenstrual Syndrome and Psychiatric Symptoms


Firoozi, Reihane, Kafi, Mousa, Salehi, Iraj, Shirmohammadi, Maryam, Iranian Journal of Psychiatry


Objective: Premenstrual syndrome is a common disorder experienced by up to 50% of women during reproductive age. The prevalence of severe form of PMS (PMDD) is 3 % to 8%. Psychiatric disorders in PMS patients have resulted in significant morbidity and in some cases caused resistance to the treatment process

Material and Method: 390 participants (264 with PMS/PMDD, and 126 healthy students of University of Guilan) who completed the demographic questionnaire, daily symptom rating (DSR) and the checklist 90-revised (SCL-90-R) took part in this study. This study was conducted using a cross sectional method.

Results: According to repeated measure variance, the mean scores of psychiatric symptoms (Depression, Anxiety, Aggression, Interpersonal sensitivity) in the PMS group were significantly higher than the healthy group (p< 0/05), and increase in severity of PMS from mild to severe was accompanied by increase in mean score of these subscales. There was a significant difference in mean score of depression, anxiety, aggression and interpersonal sensitivity between the 3rd and the 13th day of the cycle. Significant effect of the DSR grouping (PMS and Healthy group) and time interaction emerged in interpersonal sensitivity and aggression, significant effect on the DSR grouping (Mild, Moderate, Severer) and time interaction demonstrated in interpersonal sensitivity.

Conclusion: Patients with prospective confirmed PMDD seemed to suffer from psychiatric symptoms. Therefore, recognizing co-morbid psychiatric symptoms in patients with PMDD is of prime importance. All healthcare providers should be sensitive to mental status of women with PMS.

Keywords: Premenstrual syndrome, Psychiatric symptoms, Severity of illness

Iran J Psychiatry 2012; 7:36-40

Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is characterized by a cluster of mild to severe physical or emotional symptoms that mainly begin during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Symptoms should disappear within 4 days of the onset of menses and be severe enough to interfere with normal and daily function. The severe form of PMS is the Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD), which differs from PMS in respect to intensity of symptoms, predominance of mood symptoms, and the significant function impairment. (1, 2, 3). The most common symptoms are tension, irritability, hostility, depression, anxiety, mood swings, sleep changes, breast tenderness, and abdominal bloating (4). The physiopathology of PMS has yet to be fully clarified. various biological theories have been proposed as the cause of this syndrome and may include the effect of progesterone on neurotransmitters such as serotonin, opiods, catecholamine and GABA, increased prolactin level or increased sensitivity to the effect of prolactin, insulin resistance, sensitivity to endogenous hormones, abnormal hypothalamic- pituitary-adrenal axis function, nutritional deficiencies (Calcium, Mg, B6) ( 5,6,7). About 30% to 50% of menstruating women experience mild to moderate form of PMS, and 4% to 14% experience severe PMS (5). PMS leads to capacity loss of the individual, and to such psychological problems as anxiety, depression, committing suicide; and therefore results in decrease in quality of life. In fact, PMS influences not only women but also their family and the society (8, 9). Lifetime history of anxiety or mood disorders has been reported in over half of women presenting with PMS. The incidence of depression among patients with PMS is greater than healthy women (10, 11). Several reports indicate that irritability, impulsivity, anger, anxiety, tension and nervousness are much more prevalent in premenstrual period and may be no less prevalent than depressive symptoms. Comorbidity of PMS/PMDD with anxiety disorder, phobia, obsessive-compulsive and panic disorders was demonstrated (11, 12). In this study, we decided to assess psychiatric symptoms in PMS group compared to those without PMS.

Materials and Method

In this study, respondents completed four different measurements including: sociodemographic questionnaire, DSM-IV PMDD/PMS criteria questionnaire, the daily symptom rating (DSR) ,and the symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R). …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

The Relationship between Severity of Premenstrual Syndrome and Psychiatric Symptoms
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.