Relationship of Academic SE to Self-Regulated Learning, SI, Test Anxiety and Academic Achievement

By Ahmad, Shafiq | International Journal of Education, January 1, 2012 | Go to article overview

Relationship of Academic SE to Self-Regulated Learning, SI, Test Anxiety and Academic Achievement


Ahmad, Shafiq, International Journal of Education


Abstract

The study was conducted to analyse the relationship of academic self-efficacy to self-regulated learning, school identification, test anxiety and academic achievement at secondary school level. Another purpose was to examine whether self-efficacy and school identification predict academic achievement or not. Four instruments were administered to a sample of 426 students of Grade 10 (205 boys, and 221 girls). Results revealed significant correlation between the variables. Strongest relationship was found between students. academic self-efficacy and self-efficacy for self-regulation. Self-efficacy beliefs at academic domain level were found contributing significantly to the prediction of academic achievement. Significant gender differences were not found on measures of self-efficacy beliefs at academic domain level, school identification, and anxiety. Girls. academic achievement was found better than the boys. achievement. Boys were reported better than girls on measure of self-efficacy for self-regulated learning.

Keywords: Self-Efficacy (SE) beliefs, self-regulated (SR) learning, School identification (SI) test anxiety

1. Introduction

Researchers have given due attention to SE beliefs in educational research (Pintrich & Schunk, 1996) and researchers (e.g., Bandura, 1997; Pajares, 1996a; Pajares & Schunk, 2001; Usher & Pajares, 2006; Zimmerman, 1989) have reported that students. beliefs in their abilities to achieve desired goals strongly influence academic achievement. Relationship of SE has widely been investigated with SR (see, Usher & Pajares, 2006; Zimmerman, 1989; Zimmerman & Martinez-Pons, 1990), motivation (see, Bandura & Schunk, 1981; Cheong, Pajares & Oberman, 2004; Mills, Pajares & Herron, 2007; Pajares, 2001; Schunk, 1984, Stevens, Olivarez, Lan & Tallent-Runnels, 2004), SI (see, Finn & Frone, 2004), and anxiety (see, Cooper & Robinson, 1991; Mills, Pajares & Herron, 2006).

In accordance with Bandura.s (2006) description, perceived efficacy is the judgment of capability to execute given types of performance. Students having beliefs in their capabilities to achieve take interest in academic related activities, put in concerted efforts, set challenging goals, and show resolve in taxing situations (Bandura, 1997; Pajares, 1996a, Usher & Pajares, 2006). School success is primarily dependent on one.s confidence in academic capabilities as Pajares (2007a) pointed out that academic failures and deteriorating school interest are not due to lack of capabilities but because of low SE perceptions.

SE beliefs. People.s belief about their capabilities to organize and perform required action to achieve pre-determined goals (Bandura, 1997). "Academic SE reflects the extent to which students believe that they can successfully perform in school" (Finn & Frone, 2004, p.118).

SE beliefs are strong predictors of students. accomplishments (Bandura, 1986, 1997). SE beliefs determine the course of action and consequently influence academic performance (Pajares, 1996b).

Social cognitive theorists are of the view that beliefs in capabilities to perform well to accomplish assigned tasks, determine academic motivation and performance (Pajares & Miller, 1997). Level of motivation depends on what people believe and not on what is actually true (Bandura, 1997). That is why, people sometime exhibit behaviour which is entirely different from what they truly are, and often perform differently despite having more or like the same level of knowledge and expertise (Pajares & Schunk, 2001, Pajares, 2002a;).

Researchers have found positive association between SE beliefs and academic achievement. Pajares and Graham (1999) found SE beliefs significantly correlated to academic performance (r = .57, p < .0001), and self-regulated learning (r = .53, p < .0001). Results of study conducted by Mills, Pajares and Herron (2007) found strong association between sense of grade SE and SR (r = . …

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