Modeling the Underlying Predicting Factors of Tobacco Smoking among Adolescents
Jafarabadi, M. Asghari, Allahverdipour, H., Bashirian, S., Jannati, A., Iranian Journal of Public Health
Background: With regard to the willing and starting tobacco smoking among young people in Iran. The aim of the study was to model the underlying factors in predicting the behavior of tobacco smoking among employed youth and students in Iran.
Methods: In this analytical cross-sectional study, based on a random cluster sampling were recruited 850 high school students, employed and unemployed youth age ranged between 14 and 19 yr from Iran. The data of demographic and tobacco smoking related variables were acquired via a self-administered questionnaire. A series of univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were performed respectively for computing un-adjusted and adjusted Odds Ratios utilizing SPSS 17 software.
Results: A number of 189 persons (25.6%) were smoker in the study and the mean smoking initiation age was 13.93 (SD= 2.21). In addition, smoker friend, peer persistence, leaving home, and smoking in one and six month ago were obtained as independent predictors of tobacco smoking.
Conclusions: The education programs on resistance skills against the persistence of the peers, improvement in health programs by governmental interference and policy should be implemented.
Keywords: Tobacco Smoking, Factors, Employed adolescences, Students, Iran
Willingness and starting tobacco smoking among young people accompanied by its morbidity and mortality is one of the most worrisome aspects of smoking. Based on statistics from CDC, more than 80% of established adult smokers begin smoking before age 18 years. Based on CDC in 2009, 8.2% of middle school students and 23.9% of high school students reported current use of any tobacco product, and 5.2% of middle school students and 17.2% of high school students reported current use of cigarettes (1). If the trend in early initiation of cigarette smoking continues, approximately 5 million children aged <18 years who are living today will die prematurely because they began to smoke cigarettes during adolescence (2).
In Iran, the prevalence of the smoking was reported as 19.4% for youth in their lifetime (3) and the prevalence was reported as 28.9% among students who somehow smoked (4). The rate of smoking was estimated as 92.5% among addict youth in Iran (5). Various figures from 14.2% to 39% of smoking prevalence have been reported from different areas of the world (6-21).
Tobacco smoking in adolescence and young is one of the gateways and pathways as well as familiarity to the consumption of substances such as heroin, opium, hashish, cocaine, and stimulant drugs. It has a very strong role in changing and predicting the behaviors associated with drug in future (22, 23). Tobacco smoking in adolescence and young and continuing it, also declines in physical and educational performance in students, in addition to the attenuation and increasing the chance of tobacco related disease in adulthood (4). In addition, teens that start smoking at age 16 would likely to continue for 16 and 20 years of smoking in boys and girls respectively (24).
Employed and unemployed young people are of the major risky population groups, exposed to high-risk behaviors which are unfortunately neglected in health related researches and preventive interventions. The employment rate of school-age youth is different in various communities. Mitchell (1921) pointed to the estimates about the employment of school-aged youth; at the age of 16 years, 75 percent of young people are doing a work type activity. This rate at the age between 14 and 15 varies between 1 and 6 to between 1 and 2 in young population (25). Half of people in age between 14 and 17 years have expressed the incidence of at least one damage caused by the work (26).
A study showed higher rate of drug consumption among employed students, compared to un-employed students (27). One third of young people have started smoking in the workplace (28). Although drug abuse in the workplaces can lead in threatening consequences for the health of this age group (29), they have been studied less with regard to drug abuse in young people. …