Relationship between Perceived Parenting Style, Perceived Parental Acceptance-Rejection (PAR) and Perception of God among Young Adults

By Najma, Najam | Journal of Behavioural Sciences, January 1, 2012 | Go to article overview

Relationship between Perceived Parenting Style, Perceived Parental Acceptance-Rejection (PAR) and Perception of God among Young Adults


Najma, Najam, Journal of Behavioural Sciences


The present study explored how different parenting styles and perceived parental acceptance-rejection (PAR) influence the children's perception of God. Perceived parental acceptance- rejection (PAR) has

profound influence in shaping children's personality development over the life span (Rohner, 2002), and this could also extend to their relationship with God.

Children's perception of their parents attempts to control their behavior (Baumrind, 1991). Perceived parenting styles are either indulgent, authoritarian, authoritative, or uninvolved (Maccoby & Martin, 1983). Each of these parenting styles denotes the parental responsiveness (parental warmth or supportiveness) and parental demandingness (behavioral control) perceived by their children. The parental values and behavior, responsiveness and demandingness are reflected in these styles (Baumrind, 1991).

Perceived parenting styles provide a healthy indicator of parenting functioning that predicts child well-being. Both parental responsiveness and parental demandingness are important components of good parenting. Authoritative parenting is one of the most consistent family predictors of competence from early childhood through adolescence (Baumrind 1991; Darling & Steinberg, 1993). Perceived Parental Acceptance-Rejection (PAR) researchers have shown that perceived parental rejection has negative effect on the psychological adjustment and behavioral functioning of both children and adults worldwide (Rohner & Britner 2002; Rohner, Khaleque, & Cournoyer, 2006).

Perceived parental acceptance-rejection refers to a bipolar dimension of parental warmth, with parental acceptance at the positive end of the range and parental rejection at the negative end. Parental acceptance refers to the love, affection, care, comfort, support, or nurturance that parents can feel and express toward their children. Parental rejection refers to the absence or withdrawal of warmth, love, or affection by parents toward their children (Rohner, 1994). The nature of parent-child relationship appears to correlate with the relationship with God. Early experiences build the framework not only for person himself, people and significant others and extends it to include the supernatural being, (Rohner, Khaleque, & Cournoyer, 2006).

The transmission of religiosity within families influences the religious beliefs and practices of children and adolescents, as the parents and family are the primary agent of religious socialization, more likely when parent-child relationships are warm and parental communication about religion is clear (Mabe, 2005). Parents also influence the description and definition of God. The way children perceived their parents, can relate strongly to their image of God. This can also help our understanding the dynamics of personal religion (Benson & Spilka, 1973).

A person's God image has strong effect on the mental health of person. Hetzel & Gail (2004)) explored the effects of a person's God image and religiosity on his or her attitudes toward seeking mental health services and found that individuals who perceive God as present, benevolent, and loving have more positive attitudes towards seeking professional help. Individuals who report higher degrees of intrinsic religiosity also indicated more positive attitudes toward counseling.

Increasingly research has focused on understanding and defining God as an attachment figure (Kirkpatrick, 1997, 1998, 1999; Kirkpatrick & Shaver, 1990, 1992; McDonald, 2000). Kirkpatrick (1999) has argued that relationship with God can be described as an attachment bond. Development of religious involvement in youth is an important issue in today's world especially in the region. Parents are the strongest influence on child's religious development. Parental transmission of religiosity and religious identity starts early, and is strongly related to religious identity thus formed (Myers, 2000). …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited article

Relationship between Perceived Parenting Style, Perceived Parental Acceptance-Rejection (PAR) and Perception of God among Young Adults
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this article
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.