Job Satisfaction, Commitment and Performance: Testing the Goodness of Measures of Three Employee Outcomes
Dhammika, K. A. S., Ahmad, Fais Bin, Sam, Thi Lip, South Asian Journal of Management
Effective utilization of human resources brings out a positive employee outcomes which has direct implication for organizational effectiveness. Job satisfaction, performance and organizational commitment has been the most researched employee work outcomes in the past years. However, little effort has been made to test the contextual validity of the measure of these employee outcomes in reported studies. The purpose of the present study is to validate the dimensionality of three employee work related outcomes, namely job satisfaction, organizational commitment and job performance in Sri Lankan context. A questionnaire is developed with the items adopted from role theory based performance measure, Minnesota Satisfaction (Questionnaire and O'Reilly and Chatman's organizational commitment measure. Data is gathered from 136 public sector employees selected with stratified random sampling procedure. Data is analyzed with exploratory factor analysis and reliability analyses. It is found that the three measures of performance, job satisfaction, and commitment developed are valid and reliable with slight modification in Sri Lankan context.
Organizational effectiveness is largely dependent and how well they are utilizing the human resource of these organizations. Effective utilization of human resources brings out positive employee outcomes which has direct implication for organizational effectiveness (Rothmann et al., 2002). Researchers over the past years has examined the various employee work related outcomes such as, organizational commitment, performance, job satisfaction, loyalty, organizational citizenship behavior, etc. Researchers have shown an overwhelming interest on three major employee outcomes, i.e., job satisfaction, organizational commitment and performance over the past years. Their interest ranges from examining the antecedents, consequences of employee outcomes and its moderating and mediating role in organizational research. Most of the studies on these employee outcomes use measurements without paying adequate attention to test their goodness to the research context. This has limited the expansion of the knowledge on contextual validity of most of the employee outcome measures. Therefore, the study reported here is an attempt to fill this gap by examining the goodness of measures of three employee outcomes in Sri Lankan context.
OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The purpose of this study is to test the goodness of measures of three employee work related outcomes, namely job satisfaction, organizational commitment and job performance in Sri Lankan context. It assesses the reliability of these measures and tests the factorial validity by assessing the dimensionality of each variable. By doing so, it is expected to broaden the contextual validity of these selected measurements, making a contribution to the development of knowledge.
Job satisfaction has been one of the mostly researched work related outcome in the field of both management and organizational behavior. Job satisfaction is defined as a pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one's job and job experiences and as a function of the perceived relationship between what one wants from one's job and what one perceives as it offering (Locke, 1976). It results from the perception of the employee that the job and the job environment provides, what the values regularly. Most comprehensive model of job satisfaction is that of Hulin et al. (1985) identifies job satisfaction as a four factors of psychological processes; work role outcomes, work role contribution, the frame of reference used to evaluate job outcomes and subjective utility of contribution and outcomes. Organ (1989) reported in Williams and Anderson (1990) identified dispositional, affective and cognitive component of job satisfaction.
Job satisfaction is being assessed with various measurement scales. …