Study on Higher Education Sustainable Development of China's Western Region
Jie, Hu, Qiong, Huang, Canadian Social Science
The purpose of this study is to put forwards some suggestion on Higher education sustainable development of China's western region based on analyzing it's develop situation.
Key Words: Land use planning; Land management; Land use; China
Higher, post- secondary, tertiary, or third level education refers to the stage of learning that occurs at universities, academies, colleges, seminaries, and institutes of technology. Higher education also includes certain collegiate-level institutions, such as vocational schools, trade schools, and career colleges, that award academic degrees or professional certifications.
China's Western Region includes 5 autonomous regions and 7 provinces. The autonomous regions are Guangxi, Inner Mongolia, Ningxia, Tibet and Xinjiang. The provinces are Chongqing, Gansu, Guizhou, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Sichuan and Yunnan. Although China is emerging as a strong economy, disparity among the regions' development has widened in the past 30 years since it opened its door in 1978, The western region development is slower than the other region. However, China's western region is very important not only in economy area, but also in other's area. For instance, the region covers 5.38 million square kilometers, 56% of the country land area, and has a population of 287 million people, 22.99% of the national total. The territory of the western region is vast, its population sparse, and its undeveloped economic resources need to be strengthened and exploited. Of the China's poor who lack adequate food and clothing, the majority live in this region. It is also the region in which most of China's minority nationalities live. Natural resources in the western region are very rich. Total water resource account for 82.5% of the nation's total, and utilized water reserves account for 77% of the total, though only 1% of these reserves has been used. The region's mineral reserves are also huge. According to statistics for verified reserves, the region holds 36% of the nation's coal reserves, 12% of its petroleum and 53% of its natural gas reserves. 120 out of 140 categories of verified natural mineral resources are found in the western region, with some rare metal reserves among the richest in the nation if not the world. Its tourist and cultural resources are also rich. In this region, we find the clay warriors and horses of the First Emperor's tomb, the Mogao Caves, Jiuzhaigou, etc.
China's western region has gained great achievements in economic development over the period of 19782011, for example, the economic growth rates of central, western and northeast China in 2009 were 12.6%, 13.4% and 11.6%, respectively, higher than the 10.7% growth of eastern China. But as far as the higher education in the China's western region, it lags behind the central and eastern part of China presenting representing as follows: funds input are inadequate, the numbers of the university and college is smaller, the scale of the students is also smaller and the Structure of higher education is not so reasonable. The problem is not only bad for the higher education sustainable development, but also bad for economic sustainable development in the context of there is short of human capital especially high High-tech talents. While higher education is an important way for manpower capital investment and manpower training. On the other hand, the higher education can function in the following fields: (i) Ensure equality regardless of race gender, language, religion or economic or social distinctions, or physical disabilities, (ii) Educate, train and undertake research to contribute to the sustainable development and improvement of society as a whole and ensure the development of highly qualified graduates and responsible citizens. Provide opportunities for higher learning and for learning throughout life, (iii) Ensure that higher education institutions exercise ethics and scientific and intellectual rigour in their various activities, providing a focus for forecasting, warning and prevention. …