Tossing and Turning - Insomnia in Relation to Occupational Stress, Rumination, Fatigue, and Well-Being

By Kompier, Michiel A. J.; Taris, Toon W. et al. | Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health, May 2012 | Go to article overview

Tossing and Turning - Insomnia in Relation to Occupational Stress, Rumination, Fatigue, and Well-Being


Kompier, Michiel A. J., Taris, Toon W., van Veldhoven, Marc, Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health


Objectives This study of a large and heterogeneous sample of 52 1 0 daytime employees was designed to shed more light on the work effort-recovery mechanism by examining the cross-sectional relations between subjective sleep quality and (i) psychosocial work characteristics, (ii) work-related rumination, (iii) fatigue after work, and (iv) affective well-being at work and work pleasure.

Methods We used the Dutch Questionnaire on the Experience and Evaluation of Work and created three sleep quality groups (low, low-to-intermediate, and high quality). Group differences were studied through analysis of variance (ANOVA). To examine the relations among the study variables in more detail, we also conducted four sets of stepwise regression analyses. In all the analyses, we corrected for age, level of education, and gender.

Results A series of (M)ANOVA provided strong evidence for a relation between sleep quality and adverse work characteristics and work-related rumination. Furthermore, poor sleepers reported higher levels of fatigue after work, and poor sleep quality was related to both lower affective well-being during work and work pleasure. Regression analyses revealed that sleep quality was the strongest statistical predictor of after-work fatigue and affective well-being at work, and high levels of work rumination constituted the strongest statistical predictor of sleep complaints.

Conclusions As this study showed strong relations between sleep quality, occupational stress, fatigue, perseverative cognitions, and work motivation, it supports effort-recovery theory. Interventions should aim to prevent a disbalance between effort and recovery.

Key terms psychosocial work environment; sleep quality; work pleasure.

One of the challenges of occupational health psychology is to clarify the mechanisms that may explain how combinations of stressful psychosocial work characteristics in the long-term may cause ill-health (1). One such mechanism is the psycho-physiological effort-recovery mechanism (2, 3). It holds that, in the case of prolonged or repeated (daily) exposure to stressful work characteristics combined with insufficient recovery and coping possibilities, a cumulative process may start in which psychophysiological reactions that initially were adaptive and reversible are sustained and in the long run may result in subsequent adverse health. Within effort-recovery theory and comparable theoretical approaches, such as allostatic load theory (4-6) and the cognitive activation theory of stress (7), recovery is a process of psycho-physiological unwinding that is the opposite of the activation of the sympathetic-adrenal-medullary system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal system during effort expenditure, particularly under stressful conditions (3). According to effort-recovery theory, recovery is an important intervening variable in the hypothesized causal chain between the exposure to a stressful psychosocial work environment and the development of acute load reactions and also in the gradual transformation from acute load reactions ("sustained activation") into more chronic and serious load reactions and, eventually, ill-health.

Sleep is the prototypical recovery activity. It is essential for physiological balance, long-term health and mental functioning (8, 9). Sleep is important for the restoration of alertness, mood, and performance capacity. It also regenerates the central nervous system, the metabolic system, the endocrine system, and the immune system. In the long run, reduced or impaired sleep leads to metabolic diseases, depression, burnout, and mortality (9). Insufficient sleep is also a cause of poor work performance and work accidents (8). Poor sleep is mainly a matter of sleep (dis)continuity. Over the years, research concerning sleep quality and insomnia has been hampered by a lack of widely accepted operational research diagnostic criteria for their definition. However, according to a report of an American Academy of Sleep Medicine Work Group (10, p 1580), research diagnostic criteria for insomnia disorder include one or more of the following sleep-related complaints: (i) difficulty initiating sleep; (ii) difficulty maintaining sleep; (iii) waking up too early; and (iv) sleep that is chronically non-restorative or poor in quality. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited article

Tossing and Turning - Insomnia in Relation to Occupational Stress, Rumination, Fatigue, and Well-Being
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this article
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.