Managing Innovation in the Creative Industries - A Cultural Production Innovation Perspective
Jaw, Yi-Long, Chen, Chun-Liang, Chen, Shi, Innovation : Management, Policy & Practice
Creative industries now form a distinct economic sector in which the creation, production, and marketing of goods and services are combined. Defined most influentially by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport's (DCMS) Creative Industries Taskforce in 1998, creative industries are based upon activities that have their origin in individual creativity, skill and talent (Department for Culture, Media and Sport [DCMS], 1998). Moreover, they have the potential for wealth creation through the generation and exploitation of intellectual property and content. According to this definition from the DCMS (1998), creative industries include the following sectors: the performing arts, advertising, architecture, the art and antiques market, crafts, design, designer fashion, film and video, interactive leisure software (such as computer games), music, publishing, software and computer services, and television and radio. The growth of creative industries has been facilitated in part by the growing popularity of leisure and entertainment activities in advanced industrial economies. By providing an 'experience', creative industries represent a new and growing source of value in many economies (Aoyama, 2007). Such industries produce consumer goods that convey lifestyles and values with both informative and entertainments functions, and produce creative services that cover intangible activities, such as the promotion of the performing arts, films, and values.
Culture has become an important source of economic growth and job creation, particularly within advanced urban economies (Currid, 2007a, 2007b; Kloosterman, 2004; Pratt, 1997). This has raised questions as to the objectification of culture for economic purposes, particularly as the policy discourse around creative industries shifts from a cultural to an innovational perspective (Garnham, 2005). Our preference is for the term 'creative industries', which allows us to take a more product and process-oriented approach towards this issue (Pratt, 2007). Hence, innovation and creativity are not only the prerogative of high-tech firms, but are also very much part of such high-concept activities as producer services, consumer services and creative industries (Brandellero & Kloosterman, 2010). Moreover, the rapid pace of technological change in creative industries has had a significant impact on how they operate and will continue to do so. In particular, the massive development of digital media and the digital convergence of previous creative works have rendered some traditional sector boundaries partially obsolete. For example, in the UK's creative economy, a challenge for the performing arts sector is how to exploit the opportunities offered by broadcasting and other new technology (DCMS, 2007a, 2007b). Despite a growing number of reports on creative industries, many questions have yet to be fully addressed; for example, are such industries capable of developing original and unique cultural products and creative services with sustainable effects? (German Commission for UNESCO, 2007) To date, very few studies deal with innovation within creative industries (Miles & Green, 2008). Discussion of content innovation has rarely been articulated in innovation studies: it is more commonly encountered in cultural studies of various kinds, and even then is often not portrayed as innovation (e.g., Wright, Boria, & Breidenbach, 2002; Zackariasson, Walfisz, & Wilson, 2006). Furthermore, research has pointed to the need to explore innovation among creative industries in relation to the idiosyncrasies of the sector (see Handke, 2008), such as the presence of 'softinnovations' linked to changes of an aesthetic nature, as opposed to more widely used definitions of innovation that refer to changes in the functionality of products and process (Stoneman, 2009). Tran (2010) noted that future research could investigate types of innovation to compare alternative approaches to symbolic value creation. …