On the Fairness of the Higher Education in China
Li, Min, Higher Education Studies
With the establishment of the socialist market economic system in China, the issue of social fairness has been paid more and more attentions. The fairness issue of higher education, which is responsible for training high-quality talents for the national economy construction, has become the focus of attention. We discuss and research on the fairness of the higher education, and strive to achieve the goal of education equity in China.
Keyword: Education resources, Entrance exam, Education fairness
On July 29, 2010, National Medium and Long-term Educational Reformation and Development Outline (2010-2020) was formally announced, in which the policy of cleaning up and standardizing the entrance examination is emphasized in the systems of examination and enrollment reformation. Besides, in the measures of improving the graduates' qualities, it was emphasized that we should enhance the guidance services of entrepreneurship education and employment. "Meanwhile, this outline made more clear regulations in the relationship between the college entrance examination and the employment, which are regarded as the important issue of the fairness and achievement of higher education" (Zhu, Jinhua,2005). Apparentlly, our government plan a special focus on the fairness of education in the formulation of medium and long-term educational reformation and development, which is not only a solution to the highlight problems on the current higher education, but also a specific direction for us to the further investigation of higher education reformation and development to the common class.
2. The Analysis on the Present Situation of the Education Fairness in Current Higher Education
Fair education mainly refers to the educated have equal rights and equal opportunity to accept higher education, that is, the individuals in an equal society should be equal in the entrance opportunity, educational process, educational outcomes and other aspects. Any distinctive treatment or condition have been regarded as unequal education opportunity. the highest realm of modern education is "to make no social distinctions in teaching", that is, to break the boundaries of the identity, status, nationality, gender, age, region, regardless of the object, without restriction to every educator who has access to the equal opportunities and rights of education. This is not only a kind of value concept shown in the constitution and the law embodies, but also a basic guiding ideology of the development of our Chinese characteristic socialist education. However, there are still many unfair phenomena existing in the development of higher education, because of the dual constraints from the external conditions and internal factors, such as economic development, culture development, social development, population and so on.
2.1 The Unfairness of Resources Distribution in Higher Education
At present, the higher education in China carries out the system focusing on the local management, except for a few part of colleges, a majority of colleges are under the administration of the local government. Higher education investment is also directly from the local government so that the local higher education development is directly linked with the local economic development. There is a big gap of the economy development between eastern China and western China, as well as between urban and rural areas in the same region, leading to the unfairness of higher education caused by the gap of economic development between the regions. Generally speaking, the eastern developed regions can provide more funds and attract more university graduates, so that the number of colleges are much more than that in western China, where is less developed and less funds provided. In addition, some of the country's irrational system arrangement, especially the unfair allocation of higher education resources has deepened regional inequality of higher education. …