Leisure Motivation: An Integrative Review

By Chen, Meiai; Pang, Xuequan | Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal, August 10, 2012 | Go to article overview

Leisure Motivation: An Integrative Review


Chen, Meiai, Pang, Xuequan, Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal


In this article we reviewed research on leisure motivation. We started with a brief review of the history of leisure motivation and then reviewed research on leisure motivation scales and leisure constraints negotiation. Next, we considered the relationship between leisure motivation and culture in terms of cultural, self-construals, and cross-cultural factors. In this review we found that, developmentally, the study of leisure motivation is at a point of coming of age. Finally, we highlighted critical challenges future researchers will face, including understanding leisure motivation within the context of an individual's experience, investigating the complex relationships between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and studying the relationships between leisure motivation and other factors that affect participation.

Keywords: leisure motivation, intrinsic motivation, culture, leisure constraints negotiation.

Broadly construed, leisure motivation research can be defined as the study of psychological and sociological reasons for participating in leisure activities. It includes examining why individuals become involved in various leisure activities and patterns as well as how leisure is related to intrinsic motivation, constraints negotiation, and culture. In this review, we focus on leisure motivation scales and leisure constraints negotiation, the relationship between leisure motivation and culture, and the cross-cultural study of leisure motivation. We start with a brief discussion of die history of leisure motivation. Next, we examine several leisure motivation scales, which have been developed by previous researchers. We then review the nature of the relationship between leisure motivation and leisure constraints negotiation, and consider how culture affects leisure motivation. Lastly, we draw some conclusions regarding the progress of leisure motivation.

A Brief History of Leisure Motivation

Leisure motivation can be defined as a need, reason, or satisfaction that stimulates involvement in a leisure activity (Crandall, 1980). Originally, leisure motivation was thought to comprise two types of motivation: intrinsic and extrinsic.

Intrinsic motivation theory has been applied to diverse areas of leisure behavior, such as personality-situation interaction (Iwasaki & Mannell, 1999), recreational sport participation (Alexandris, Tsorbatzoudis, & Grouios, 2002), personally salient activities (Waterman, 2005), and leisure with a close friend (Walker, 2008). Extrinsic motivation theory has been applied to diverse areas such as academic achievement (Hayenga & Corpus, 2010) and physical activity (Dacey, Baltzell, & Zaichkowsky, 2008).

During the past two decades, leisure motivation research has begun to take on a central role in leisure studies. Exhaustive categories for describing leisure motivation were developed in the 1980s. Crandall (1980) developed 17 motivational categories and items that were considered to be important for leisure. In the 1990s, Crandall's Leisure Motivation Scale was applied to research on vacations (Lounsbury & Polik, 1992) and tourism (Ryan & Glendon, 1998).

We are, however, entering an era when leisure motivation is beginning to be embraced by those researching leisure constraints negotiation (Hubbard & Mannell, 2001; Lee & Scott, 2009) and culture (Walker, 2009; Walker & Wang, 2008). Developmentally, leisure motivation has reached a stage in its development where it has come of age. However, as we will discuss below, there are a number of challenges that those conducting research on leisure motivation need to pay attention to if this field is to thrive in the coming decade.

Leisure Motivation Scales

The Leisure Motivation Scale (Beard & Ragheb, 1983) has been utilized in all kinds of settings in order to understand leisure motivation. After rigorous testing, a comprehensive list of 48 leisure motivations was developed by Beard and Ragheb. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Leisure Motivation: An Integrative Review
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Author Advanced search

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.