Where Does Perfectionism Come from? a Qualitative Investigation of Perfectionists and Nonperfectionists
Hibbard, David R., Walton, Gail E., Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal
Keywords: perfectionism, origin, development, achievement, qualitative investigation.
Perfectionism is generally defined as the "striving for flawlessness" (Flett & Hewitt, 2002, p. 5), but researchers disagree about the developmental roots of perfectionism. It is likely that a perfectionistic orientation develops over time, and family history may contribute to the development of perfectionism. Early messages from teachers, coaches, peers, and the media regarding achievement and success may also influence whether or not one becomes a perfectionist. However, it remains unclear which specific experiences may lead one to become a perfectionist. A major purpose in this preliminary investigation was to examine the roots of achievement motivation in general and to clarify the developmental dynamics that surround an individual who becomes a selfproclaimed perfectionist.
Participants comprised 36 (16 male and 20 female) undergraduate students (65% Caucasian; M^sub age^ = 24.63, SD = 7.52) from a public university in North America. Through semistructured interviews, they answered a set of questions relating to their achievement motivation (e.g., "How important is achievement to you?"). Participants were also asked if they had any perfectionistic qualities or tendencies. Interviewees who answered yes to this question were then asked a series of questions specifically relating to the origins of their perfectionism (e.g., "Where do you think your perfectionistic tendencies come from?"). In this study, 23 participants (64%) identified themselves as perfectionists.
In terms of achievement motivation, perfectionists and nonperfectionists were similar in many areas of inquiry (e.g., believing in the need to work hard in order to succeed and feeling frustrated when unable to complete a task). Results from the interviews, however, indicate a few noteworthy differences between perfectionists and nonperfectionists. For example, although perfectionists and nonperfectionists did not give different ratings of the importance of achievement and success in their lives, perfectionists were more likely than nonperfectionists to say that they felt pressure from their families to succeed and that their parents were overly critical of their mistakes when they were growing up. …