India-Brazil Strategic Engagement - Possibilities for the Future

By Tripathi, Amitava | Indian Foreign Affairs Journal, April-June 2012 | Go to article overview

India-Brazil Strategic Engagement - Possibilities for the Future


Tripathi, Amitava, Indian Foreign Affairs Journal


Writing in the Indian Foreign Affairs Journal of July-September 2010, Oliver Stuenkel of the University of Sao Paulo in Brazil rightly observed that ties between Brazil and India remained largely insignificant during most of the cold war. Their inward-looking, protectionist policies based on strategies of import substitution as well as sharp disagreements over the decolonization process of the Portuguese enclaves in India, mainly Goa, cast a pall over their bilateral relationship. Even though they often took common positions in international fora such as UNCTAD and G77, and Indira Gandhi's historic visit to Brazil in 1968 (the first ever by an Indian Prime Minister) was generally well received, Brazil's geo-political ties to the United States and India's somewhat left-leaning, non-aligned policy kept their contacts sporadic and low-key.

Yet, during the decade-long military government in Brazil (1964-1975), a good number of Indian scientists and engineers worked on various nuclear, space and metallurgical research projects in that country without much fanfare. These were the days when Brazil held views very similar to those of India over the inequitable nature of the NPT regime. However, following India's "peaceful nuclear explosion" (PNE) in 1974, American pressure on successive Brazilian democratic governments appears to have dissuaded the latter from employing more Indians. In addition, consequent upon the restoration of democracy, Brazil went through a period of great economic turmoil with hyper-inflation decimating its currency; this, too, appears to have discouraged further influx of qualified Indians. With Brazil preferring regional cooperation within the framework of MERCOSUL (established in 1991) over the uncertainties of pursuing an independent nuclear policy, the need for Indian cooperation in space and nuclear research virtually came to an end.

In the words of Stuenkel, "The end of the cold war brought fundamental change to the geopolitical landscape, allowing Brazil and India to make a fresh start." The collapse of the Soviet Union and the first Gulf War exposed the limitations of India's licence-permit raj, and the economic crisis of 1991-92 drove India into a dramatic opening up of its economy and made it more responsive to the demands of the marketplace. The period also witnessed Brazil emerging out of the disastrous lost decade of the 1980s and embracing more sustainable economic policies. It was the Sao Paulo-based brilliant sociologist, Fernando Henrique Cardoso, who, as President Itamar Franco's Finance Minister during 1993-1994, devised the so-called Plano Real that pegged the Brazilian Real to the US dollar. This along with a host of socioeconomic measures placed Brazil on its path to recovery.

Not surprisingly, as President of the country during 1995-2002, Cardoso played a pioneering role in establishing Brazil-India ties. The current upswing in Brazil-India relations clearly had its genesis in President Cardoso's historic state visit to India in 1996. Even though in the absence of any direct shipping or air connections and inadequate knowledge of each other's potential, India- Brazil trade was slow in growing, Cardoso's Health Minister, José Serra, took the lead in encouraging Indian pharmaceutical companies to first export generic drugs to Brazil and later set up manufacturing plants there, primarily to help combat HIV/AIDS. (Later, under the auspices of the IBSA Dialogue Forum, the socio-economic grouping of India, Brazil and South Africa set up in June 2003, the three countries went on to start cooperating in their common fight against the three scourges of HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis.)

President Lula da Silva and the True Founding of Bilateral Cooperation

While Cardoso's visit opened up the prospects of potentially beneficial links between Brazil and India, it was under his successor, Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva, popularly known as Lula (2003-2010) that Brazil-India relations really took off. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited article

India-Brazil Strategic Engagement - Possibilities for the Future
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this article
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.