Diabetes Mellitus: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, Screening, and Risk Factors

By Lee, Jiehyun; Dang, Devra K. | Drug Topics, September 2012 | Go to article overview

Diabetes Mellitus: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, Screening, and Risk Factors


Lee, Jiehyun, Dang, Devra K., Drug Topics


Abstract

Diabetes is one of the most common medical conditions worldwide and exerts a tremendous impact on both the healthcare system and the individual patient. Uncontrolled hyperglycemia can result in both short-term and long-term complications that affect virtually every major organ system in the body. This article summarizes the pathophysiology and diagnosis of type 1 and type 2 diabetes and the risk factors and screening for type 2 diabetes in adults. A synopsis of the diagnosis and treatment of pre-diabetes as well as a brief review of acute hyperglycemic crises is also provided. This overview provides the foundation for future articles on more specific topics in this diabetes series.

Medication Therapy Management (MTM) in Patients with Diabetes CPE Series

Welcome to a new Medication Therapy Management (MTM) in Patients with Diabetes CPE Series, which has been designed for pharmacists who take care of patients with diabetes. Beginning this month and continuing through March 2013, pharmacists can earn up to 14 hours of CPE credit with 7 monthly knowledge-based activities from the University of Connecticut School of Pharmacy and Drug Topics. This month, the professional development activity will cover the pathophysiology, diagnosis, screening, and risk factors associated with diabetes mellitus. In October 2012, pharmacists will learn about medical nutrition therapy, physical activity, and health maintenance considerations for diabetic patients. In November and December 2012, the activities will focus on therapeutic considerations, including oral and injectable agents for diabetes care and management. In January 2013, the CPE article will cover macrovascular and microvascular complications of diabetes, and in February 2013, the focus will be psychosocial considerations in the management of the disease. In March 2013, the last knowledge-based activity will enable greater understanding of drug-induced hyper- and hypoglycemia, nonprescription medications, and complementary and alternative medicine for diabetes care.

The MTM CPE Series will also be offering application-based and practicebased activities for an additional 9 CPE credits. Online interactive case-based studies will be available with 1 hour of CPE credit, starting in February 2013 and continuing through April 2013. The MTM CPE Series will conclude with a live meeting at the University of Connecticut School of Pharmacy in May 2013, offering application of MTM concepts to the patient with diabetes and motivational interviewing skills development for health behavior change in diabetes management.

Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common medical conditions globally. The number of people with diabetes is increasing due to population growth, aging, urbanization, and increasing prevalence of obesity and physical inactivity.' According to the World Health Organization, this diabetes epidemic is expected to continue to increase even if the prevalence of obesity remains stable.' In the United States approximately 26 million persons, or 8-3% of the population, are affected by diabetes and it is the 7th leading cause of death.2 Understanding the risk factors as well as the underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms of diabetes can lead to appropriate screening, diagnosis, and management.

Pathophysiology

Diabetes mellitus describes a group of metabolic disorders characterized by hyperglycemia due to impaired glucose homeostasis. The main types of diabetes are type 1, in which there is absolute insulin deficiency, and type 2, characterized primarily by both relative insulin deficiency and insulin resistance. Type 1 and type 2 diabetes account for over 95% of all patients with diabetes. Many other types of diabetes exist, including gestational diabetes mellitus, diabetes from endocrinopathies (e.g., Cushing syndrome), and drug-induced diabetes.3 The focus of this article is on type 1 and type 2 diabetes.

Type 1 diabetes

The etiology of type 1 diabetes is autoimmune in more than 95% of cases and idiopathic in the remaining cases, with both resulting in absolute insulin deficiency. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Diabetes Mellitus: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, Screening, and Risk Factors
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.