Role of Education in Employment Opportunities for Women in Iran as a Important Factor for the Sustainability of the Society

By Iravani, Mohammad Reza | European Journal of Sustainable Development, February 2012 | Go to article overview

Role of Education in Employment Opportunities for Women in Iran as a Important Factor for the Sustainability of the Society


Iravani, Mohammad Reza, European Journal of Sustainable Development


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Introduction

Higher education is a process of imparting knowledge and skills to individuals and empowers them to;

Participate in development, decision making and democratic process. Effective education takes place when students are able to participate fully and benefit from that education. Disability can be explained in terms of any restriction that results from impairment and hinders a person from performing an activity within the range considered normal for a normal person (Heward, 2006, Hardman, Drew & Egan, 2005).

According toUN Convention on the Rights of Persons with

Barriers that limit a person's full participation include; negative attitude, discriminative policies and practices, and inaccessible environments as a result of these barriers, students are being excluded from accessing higher education. According to findings from a series of focused discussion groups from 12 countries carried out in late 2005 and early 2006, access to education was one the main concerns raised by these young people (Ncube & Macfadyen, 2006)

According to UNESCO (2005), inclusion as a dynamic approach of responding positively to pupil diversity and of seeing individual differences not as a problem but as opportunity for enriching learning The aim of inclusive education is to remove the historical exclusion within and outside of the school through enactment or modification of legislation, policies and educational management practices in order to promote the reorganization of the educational systems and the acceptance of all students independently of their differences, ( Rustemier, 2002)

Differences among students may be related to disability, gender, size, color or ethnicity and disability is just one of these differences and does not limit ones strengths and abilities. Inclusive education recognizes that these differences are valuable and bring creativity and through them ideas are shared and experienced. In other words, inclusion is about transforming systems to be inclusive of everyone and not about inserting persons into existing structures (UNICEF, 2009). The authors, (Heward, 2006, Hardman et al, 2005)

State that effective inclusive education identifies barriers in education systems that hinder the participation of students come up with solutions. Inclusive education constitutes a paradigm based on the concept of human rights and social model that unites equality and difference as inseparable values and surpasses the formal quality model (Jonsson, 2001, P: 108).

The National Report on Women in Iran (1995) cited that Iranian female secondary school graduates now have the opportunity to further pursue their education at the university level in the fields benefiting their talents and abilities because many educational obstacles facing women have been removed. The increased opportunity for female students and faculty is related to different issues. According to the National Report on Women in Iran (1995), important factors such as establishing suitable facilities (such as educational environment segregated by gender) have promoted women's education in many fields. This combination has merged to produce desirable effects on the educational status of women in Iran. The impact of these factors has also been seen on religious beliefs, a noticeable point. Consequently, recent studies indicate a decline in statistical differences between the number of male and female students. The National Report on Women in Iran (1995) revealed that, nationally, academic female students' performance now stands five percent above that of male students.

Achievements of women in higher educational levels, and the number of female students in different fields, have increased noticeably in recent years, The National Report on Women in Iran (1995) indicated a comparison between academic years 1987-1988 and 1992-1993. The comparison shows the following achievements in women's graduation from universities in the span of those five years: 1) an increase of 119 percent in the number of graduates in social sciences and humanities; 2) a two-fold increase in graduates in basic sciences; 3) an increase of 230 percent in the number of graduates in agricultural and veterinary sciences; 4) an increase of 70 percent in technical and engineering fields and medical sciences; and, 5) an increase of 246 percent in different fields of arts. …

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