HRD Climate and Occupational Self-Efficacy as Predictors of Employee Engagement

By Chaudhary, Richa; Rangnekar, Santosh et al. | Review of Management, July-September 2011 | Go to article overview

HRD Climate and Occupational Self-Efficacy as Predictors of Employee Engagement


Chaudhary, Richa, Rangnekar, Santosh, Barua, Mukesh Kumar, Review of Management


Introduction

Employee engagement is one of the most recently studied topics in organizational behavior literature. Research has shown employee engagement has the potential to predict valued individual and organizational level outcomes like intention to quit, organizational commitment, job satisfaction, organizational citizenship behavior.(Saks,2006). Critical links between employee engagement and customer loyalty, business growth and profitability has also been reported (The Gallup Organization, 2004).Thus an engaged employee is certainly an asset for the organizations in the current highly dynamic and unpredictable business environment.

Though numerous attempts have been made to define the construct of employee engagement, some significant and relevant contributions are:

Kahn (1990) defines employee engagement as "the harnessing of organization members' selves to their work roles; in engagement, people employ and express themselves physically, cognitively, and emotionally during role performances". In the burnout literature engagement has been defined as the opposite of burnout (Maslach et al., 2001). Schaufeli et al. (2002) defined Work Engagement as a positive, fulfilling, work-related state of mind that is characterized by vigor, dedication, and absorption. Rather than a momentary and specific state, engagement refers to a more persistent and pervasive affective-cognitive state that is not focused on any particular object, event, individual, or behavior. Employee engagement has been defined as "a distinct and unique construct that consists of cognitive, emotional, and behavioral components associated with individual role performance" (Saks, 2006).

Research has generally conceptualized work engagement as a relatively stable phenomenon because of the continued presence of specific job and organizational characteristics (Macey & Schneider, 2008).However, it has been reported that daily changes in social support effect daily work engagement among fast-food restaurant employees (Xanthopoulou, Bakker, Demerouti & Schaufeli, 2009b).

The present research has employed the impression of employee engagement which is based upon the conceptualization of Employee engagement as proposed by Schaufeli et al. (2002). Here employee engagement can be characterized by three factors i) Vigor is characterized by high levels of energy and mental resilience while working, the willingness to invest effort in one's work, and persistence even in the face of difficulties. ii) Dedication refers to being strongly involved in one's work and experiencing a sense of significance, enthusiasm, inspiration, pride, and challenge. iii) Absorption, is characterized by being fully concentrated and happily engrossed in one's work, whereby time passes quickly and one has difficulties with detaching oneself from work'.

HRD Climate

Human resources have become critical for the success of any organization. In the present era of globalization organizations have realized the importance of developing the human resources in order to achieve sustained competitive advantage. In other words there is a need of favorable HRD climate in every organization in present times. HRD is primarily concerned with developing employees through training, feedback and counseling by the senior officers and other developmental efforts. (Rao & Pareek, 1992). HRD culture is derived from the overall organization culture. HRD culture is identified based on how the organizations treat, believe and handle the employees.

HRD climate in an organization is the perception of its employees about the developmental climate prevalent in the organization. (Rao & Abraham, 1986). HRD climate is characterized by the tendencies such as treating employees as the most important resources, perceiving that developing employees is the job of every manager, believing in the capability of employees, communicating openly, encouraging risk taking and experimentation, making efforts to help employees recognize their strengths and weaknesses, creating a general climate of trust, collaboration and autonomy, supportive personnel policies, and supportive HRD practices. …

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