Weathering Forms at Barqoq Monument, Old Islamic Cairo, Egypt

By Ibrahim, Hani A. M.; El-Bayomy, Gehan M. | Geopolitics, History and International Relations, July 1, 2012 | Go to article overview

Weathering Forms at Barqoq Monument, Old Islamic Cairo, Egypt


Ibrahim, Hani A. M., El-Bayomy, Gehan M., Geopolitics, History and International Relations


ABSTRACT.

Barqoq Islamic monument was built 1284 a, c., at old Islamic Cairo, east or Cairo, Egypt. Severe damage has been observed in the foundations of Barqoq monument. There are many weathering forms are observed such as flaking, crumbling, salt efflorescence's, granular disintegration, bad weathering, rock meal, as well as different types of cracks. These weathering forms are considered as the diagnostic features of salt weathering and could related to the uprising effect of the subsoil water through the monument foundations, the subsoil water is about 2m. Below the ground exchange the deteriorated parts by durable reconstruction rocks, isolate the monument from subsoil water using water proof material, and use suitable poultices to repair the marble are the main recommendations.

Keywords: weathering, hazards, archeological sites

Introduction

Weathering is a diverse process that has implications for a wide range of earth and surface processes. These processes include the deterioration of stone monuments and buildings, and the occurrence of hazardous events e.g. slope failure due to weathered slope material and the presence of clay minerals. The in-place breakdown of geologic material by physical, chemical, and biological processes is a necessary precursor to most forms of erosion, sediment transport, and denudation. This present study aims at assessing the weathering forms in these sites, in order to protect our monument from heritage. Egypt has a great number of archeological sites, most of these sites suffered from weathering, these process may be a result of many factors such as the effect of the affect of near surface water with its dissolved salts, through the salt weathering process. In view of various threats to the monuments in Egypt, Barqoq Monument case study, there is need for environmental conservation. There is a need for general survey of sources of environmental hazards (subsurface water, air moisture, wind erosion, air pollution, seismic shaking, human interference and touristic activity.

Barqoq Islamic monument was built 1284 A.D. at old Islamic Cairo, Islamic monuments and mosques located in 30° 2' 52"N and 31°15' 36"E. Figure 1 on each side of El Moez Street, Walls and gates that witnessed many important events throughout history surrounded Cairo.

The main propose of these study aims at determining the main geological and Geomorphological setting in the area of study as will as estimation the relationship between rock types and weathering forms.

Geomorphological setting: Abdel Daiem, A. A. (1971), and Armanious M. G. (1989) studied the Geomorphological setting in greater Cairo, which includes the area of study.

The main geomorphic features are presented in Figure 2:

* The structural Plateau; underlain by Limestone rocks and dissected by a number of faults running mainly in the north-south east direction.

* The structural Plain; underlain by sandstone Strata. The surfaces are dotted by isolated hills.

* The Narrow Piedmont Plain; occupies the strip lying between the cultivated land and the foot slopes of structural plateau and the structural plain that is essentially underlain by down wash deposits.

* The Flood Plain; it is related to River Nile and underlain by fine silt deposits.

* Drainage Lines; conspicuous basin which follows mainly the faults line of weakness. All such basins, having a catchment areas are located in the plateau of the Nile Basin and the Delta.

Extensive damage has been observed in foundation of Barqoq monument and affect all construction rocks but with different rates and types. Damage survey was carried out using Fitzner classification, 2002. The limestone blocks damage is represented by back weathering due to loss of material, rounding, notching, flakes, and the outermost parts are soft and crumbled easily by fingers figs 3-9. Also, rock meal is observed on the ground. The granitic pillars suffered from granular disintegration Fig. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited article

Weathering Forms at Barqoq Monument, Old Islamic Cairo, Egypt
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this article
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.