How the CVT Specialists Working in Centres of Vocational Training Affect the Social Exclusion of People Older Than 50 Years Old in Greece?

By Papadaki, Kyriaki; Kyridis, Argyris | International Journal of Education, July 1, 2012 | Go to article overview

How the CVT Specialists Working in Centres of Vocational Training Affect the Social Exclusion of People Older Than 50 Years Old in Greece?


Papadaki, Kyriaki, Kyridis, Argyris, International Journal of Education


Abstract

The changes that took place in the sectors of society and economy worldwide had also an impact on the sector of labour. The group most affected by these changes was elder people [aged 50-65] since they were forced to immediately implement specific societal and cognitive skills. The solution against the problem of the social and employment exclusion has risen from the field of education and vocational training through the planning and materialisation of targeted programmes.

The research aims to contribute to the broader social debate of the enhancement of the system of Continuing Vocational Training [CVT] in Greece through the making of contemporary active policies to combat unemployment and social exclusion of the elder people. The chosen group for the research was the CVT Specialists of the Centres for Vocational Training [CVTs] and their relation with the social and employment excluded elder people [aged 50-65].

The current research places itself in the field of Adult Education, and more precisely in Planning, Management and Evaluation of Adult Education Programmes. The methodology used was the quantitative approach, and the formula aiming at the gathering of numerical data was the questionnaire.

The main research findings regarding the CVT Specialists self-perception for their profile has shown that their basic studies had not provided them with important help in relation with the position they held. What turned to be really important was the part of working experience. As for the procedure of planning and materialising educational programmes of vocational training on the specified social group of the elder people [aged 50-65], the findings suggested that they didn't have sufficient knowledge or specified education. Finally, at specific correlations, there were observed some differences on the parts of profile and of planning and materialising, related with age and gender.

Keywords: Continuing Vocational Training [CVT], elder people [aged 50-65], unemployment and social, Adult Education, social exclusion, CVT specialists, the ageing population phenomenon

1. The concept of exclusion

Exclusion as a concept is related to the accumulation of cumulative procedures that steadily separate individuals, groups, communities and regions, leading them to an unfavourable position, compared with the prevailing values. There are three basic approaches to social exclusion, according to Pleios (1999):

1) the holistic approach, according to which employment is considered to be basic incorporating force through income, the sense of identity, and value per se, that labour and networks have to offer

2) the poverty approach, according to which the reasons for exclusion are related to low income and the lack of basic resources

3) the lower classes approach, which argues that the excluded depart from the ethical and cultural norms of the society, they are characterised by a "poverty" or "dependence" culture and they are to be blamed for the state of poverty in which they are

The interest in the current research focuses on exclusion as experienced in labour and is subsequently transferred in the society.

It argued in the literature that a contrast is formed with reference to an individual's inclusion to the social system and for this reason it constitutes a multi-dimensional and complex social phenomenon (Vlachos & Kyritsi, 2003; Rompolis & Dimoulas, 1998; Room, 1995; Levitas, 1998). In this sense, individuals and groups are marginalised from social, economic, political, cultural and educational life (Walker & Walker, 1997, p.8), which results in the automatic exclusion from different aspects of the societies in which they live and are part of (Vleminckh & Berghman, 2001, p. 34).

It is made clear from the above that social exclusion constitutes a concept directly related to the specificities and the characteristics of the contemporary era. It is deteriorated mostly due to the insufficiency of the social and state benefits (Barnes, 2002, p. …

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