A Study on the Historical Etymology and Causes of Collocations in Persian Language

By Sharifi, Shahla; Ebrahimi, Shima | International Journal of Linguistics, December 1, 2012 | Go to article overview

A Study on the Historical Etymology and Causes of Collocations in Persian Language


Sharifi, Shahla, Ebrahimi, Shima, International Journal of Linguistics


Abstract

The issue of collocation which is carried out on the basis of appropriateness of semantic relationship between the words is a field of study in Linguistics and has a strong relationship with lexicology and semantics.

Thorough and comprehensive researches vis-à-vis the fields of syntax have been undertaken and achieved results indicate that not only the meaning of each individual word but also their bond with "their syntagmatic words" is a determining factor in collocational cases. Therefore, it is not possible at all to limit the subject of collocations to a specific framework.

The present study seeks to examine and explain the concept of collocation in Persian language and the causes of collocating words from a scientific and etymological perspective. For this reason, lexical collocations are grouped into categories such as collocations with historical and scientific roots, collocations in poets' verses or with Quranic allusion, collocations used together in the same situation, and collocations made of synonyms and antonyms.

Keywords: Lexical collocation, Semantic relation, Collocation, Etymology, Synonym-antonym collocation

(ProQuest: ... denotes non-US-ASCII text omitted.)

1. Introduction

All objects in the world are in relation with one another and since the words reflect the concepts in the universe, being analogous and having semantic relations are unavoidable. Words have their limitations in juxtaposing with each other and it is impossible to use all feasible combinations of words together.

The issue of collocation is related to all units of language. For instance, in the field of phonology in Persian language consonants collocate with vowels and create a syllable and two consonants can never come together in the initial position or the middle of a word. Collocations also exist in the area of semantics. As an example, "ham" which is a prefix can be used with a specific group of words i.e. nouns such as "hamx ne (home mate)", "hamk r (co-worker)" or "tar" which is a suffix and can only be used with adjectives such as "ku aktar (younger)", "bozorgtar (older)". Since this domain is too broad and examining collocations from a semantics view shows that explaining it on the basis of semantics is more reasonable, we dismiss that in this article. This research aims to examine and describe the concept of collocation in Persian language and the causes of word sets in combinations and collocations. Historical and scientific reasons, similar usage and examining collocations are among the reasons for collocating words which are addressed in this article.

2. Literature Review

Studies on lexical relationships in the field of semantics had often been conducted in respect for pragmatic relations. But, in late twentieth century for the first time, a group of British Linguists in a different approach accentuated the syntagmatic aspects of the words.

The reason for this alteration in lexical studies can be traced back in works of Firth in the form of concept of collocation. The term collocation was first introduced by G. R. Firth in his theory of meaning. Fundamentally, he considered these linguistic phenomena to be meaning-based rather than grammar-based and used them to nominate and specify the combinations on the basis of their semantic-idiomatic relations, their frequency and their occurrence. Collocation is a way of expressing the meaning. (Palmer, 1971:170)

Firth believed in recognition of words through the meaning of its collocating words and postulated that collocations of words can only reveal one part of their meaning. In this case we can refer to dog and barking, railway- train, darkness- night. (Palmer, 1971:161)

One of the Palmer's findings suggests that words can take new meanings in different collocations. One such case is the meaning of the word "bank" in combinations such as bank of the river or bank of Australia. According to Firth, the criterion in granting permission for collocations is not only the meaning of each individual word, but also linguistic conventions in their juxtaposition. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited article

A Study on the Historical Etymology and Causes of Collocations in Persian Language
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this article
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.