Scale for Test Preparation and Test Taking Strategies*

By Biçak, Bayram | Kuram ve Uygulamada Egitim Bilimleri, Winter 2013 | Go to article overview

Scale for Test Preparation and Test Taking Strategies*


Biçak, Bayram, Kuram ve Uygulamada Egitim Bilimleri


Abstract

The purpose of the study was to develop a "Test Preparation and Test Taking Strategies Scale" (TPTTS) to diagnose exam-preparation and exam-taking strategies to be used by students preparing for the university selection examinations at national level. The participants of the study were from different kinds of public high schools and were preparing for the university entrance exam in a private training center located in Bolu, Turkey. To detect the construct validity of TPTTS, Exploratory Factor Analysis procedure was applied with varimax rotation. First of all, the scale was prepared as two main scales: (1) Test Preparation and (2) Test Taking Strategy having a total of 37 items. The first part of the scale "Test Preparation Strategies" consists of three sub-scales which are cognitive strategies (7 items), social strategies (3 items) and metacognitive strategies (7 items). The second part of the scale "Test Taking Strategy" consists of four subscales which are item analysis strategies (7 items), time management strategies (4 items), choice prediction strategies (3 items) and after test strategies (3 items). The internal consistency coefficients of the subscales change from 0.39 to 0.78 depending on the number of items.

Key Words

Test Taking Strategy, Test Preparation Strategy, Testwiseness, College Entry Exam.

There are many factors that affect the success of the students in exams. These include the school, the teacher, the quality of education, the methods of teaching, the teaching and learning equipment, the other students with whom one studies, personal studying habits, motivation and test-taking anxiety. Even if all the factors affecting the students' success in the exams are positive, it is still necessary to have a special preparation in the methods of responding to exam questions and to use appropriate strategies during the examination to be successful.

Bond and Herman (1994) assert that ability, success, and GPA are factors overlapped due to individual strategies. Therefore; the main focus needs to be on testing strategy rather than testing experience to increase exam performance. [Sternberg (1998), however, points out the metacognitive aspects of testing experience which include selection strategy, timing, difficulty prediction, and tracking. These aspects are considered to be important for testing strategies. The affective characteristics of students are regarded to be constituents of students' metacognitive attributes, which shows that some of the students are more confident on testing than others regardless of test difficulty or test format (Hacker, Bol, Horgan, & Rakow, 2000; Krebs & Roebers, 2010; Sternberg, 1998).

Kitsantas (2002); Hong, Sas, & Sas, (2006) points out that training about testing strategies can help students increase their locus of control, which, in turn, can improve their testing performances. On the other hand, because of the inadequate exam time or lack of motivation, students cannot apply their testing strategies during the exam (Barnett, 2000). Additionally, it was observed that inadequate preparation, lack of testing strategies and high anxiety levels have negative effect on test performance (Chittooran & Miles, 2001; Miyasaka, 2000).

It has been suggested that students who use test preparation and test taking strategies will have an increase in their academic success. For example, Samson (2001) gave a five-week training course on test-taking skills to high school and elementary school students. Students who were trained on test-taking skills for five weeks or more had higher academic success. This result shows that education in test-taking skills has a positive effect on the student's academic success. Smith (2002) studied the relationships between university students' perceptions of their test-taking skills and self-confidence and their test performance. Smith found that there was a relationship between the students' self-confidence and test performance, but there was not a relationship between the students' perceptions of their test-taking skills and their test performance. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Scale for Test Preparation and Test Taking Strategies*
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.