Pre-Smoke-Ban Café Staff Job Satisfaction and Attitudes in Transition Countries

By Pranic, Ljudevit; Pivac, Snjezana et al. | European Journal of Tourism Research, January 1, 2013 | Go to article overview

Pre-Smoke-Ban Café Staff Job Satisfaction and Attitudes in Transition Countries


Pranic, Ljudevit, Pivac, Snjezana, Colak, Anela, European Journal of Tourism Research


Introduction

Healthcare and tobacco research has long established that smoking is not only hazardous to smokers, but also to those exposed to second-hand smoke (SHS; also known as the environmental tobacco smoke [ETS]) in restaurants, bars, offices, and other enclosed spaces where smoking is allowed (National Cancer Institute, 1999; World Health Organization [WHO], 2008, 2011a). Moreover, ETS levels have been found to be 3.9-6.1 times higher in bars, as compared to office workplaces (Siegel, 1993). Armed with evidence that SHS harms the health of customers and employees, many countries and jurisdictions (e.g. U.S., Canada, New Zealand, Australia, Ireland, Italy, Croatia, etc.) have in the past two decades adopted legislation restricting or prohibiting smoking in work-places and public places, such as restaurants and bars. Needless to say, in both past and present attempts to ban smoking in restaurants and bars, many hospitality owners, managers, and associations have put up resistance to a smoking ban, citing rights (as owners) to make their own decisions regarding smoking policies and fears from a decrease in patronage and the associated loss in sales and profits (Hirasuna, 2006; Roseman, 2005).

In response to the often heated debates between public health advocates and smoking ban opponents regarding the economic effects of smoking bans in bars and restaurants, over 150 studies in English language have been conducted on the subject as late as February 2008, as identified by Scollo and Lal (2008). Despite voluminous research, a closer inspection of the 150+ smoke-ban-related research articles comprehensively reviewed by Scollo and Lal reveals the following three gaps in the available research. First, only 36 (22%) of the smoke-ban-related studies were peer reviewed, with many non-peer reviewed studies sponsored by the tobacco industry (Scollo and Lal, 2008). Second, of the 36 peer reviewed studies, 22 (63%) were conducted in the U.S., followed by Australia (4), Canada (3), New Zealand (3), South Africa (2), UK (1), and Italy (1). Meanwhile, research in transition and developing countries remains scarce. Third, very few research articles about employees' attitudes and job satisfaction toward smoking bans have been published in hospitality journals thus far (Hetland et al., 2008; Pizam, 2012). Indeed, updating the literature on smoking ban issues is important to the hospitality industry and hospitality owners and managers are seeking relevant data that identifies the potential impact smoking bans will have on employees' health, attitudes, and job satisfaction.

The lack of peer reviewed research regarding (1) the effects of smoke-free legislation on the hospitality industry, (2) the impacts on hospitality sectors in transition countries, and (3) employees' job satisfaction and attitudes toward smoke-free legislation in general, form the basis for this study. The additional rationale for this study stems from the relevance and timeliness of employee opinion regarding smoking in hospitality establishments in transition countries. In one transition country, i.e. Bosnia-Herzegovina, the parliament ratified the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control on July 10, 2009 (WHO, 2011b). Consequently, Bosnia-Herzegovina officials are on the verge of introducing the new anti-smoking regulations that will affect cafés, restaurants, schools, theatres, hospitals, factories, and all government offices.

The main objectives of this exploratory study are to:

* Assess the profile of Bosnia-Herzegovina café staff;

* Examine employees' pre-implementation job satisfaction and attitudes towards café smoking ordinances in Bosnia-Herzegovina;

* Empirically explore whether the reported attitudes are associated with demographics (i.e., gender, education, and age) and work-related variables ([WRV] i.e., hospitality work experience, average weekly workload, smoking status, preferred café smoking policy, café area served, café seating allocation);

* Assess the influence of demographics and WRV on café smoking policy;

* Investigate the effects of demographics, WRV, and attitudes towards a café smoking ban on employee's job satisfaction;

The rest of the paper is organized as follows; we first review the impacts of smoke-free legislation on the hospitality sector. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited article

Pre-Smoke-Ban Café Staff Job Satisfaction and Attitudes in Transition Countries
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Author Advanced search

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.