Attitudes of Lebanese Adults Age 18-22 towards Homosexuality
Assi, Ghenwa Nizar, American Academic & Scholarly Research Journal
Abstract. The attitude of Lebanese adults towards homosexuality is examined in this research article. In the past, the only acceptable affiliation was heterosexuality. Nowadays, attitudes towards homosexuality have undergone a tremendous change due to globalization. Participants in the study are 200 college students between the ages of 18-22. The sample was taken from 5 different regions in Lebanon: the north, Beirut, the Bekaa, the south, and the mountain of Lebanon. Participants filled anonymous questionnaires that include statements about their attitudes towards homosexuality, its causes and effects and whether they give homosexuals equal rights. Most participants considered homosexuality to be genetic or due to sexual abuse. Others believe it is due to cultural habits. 10%of the participants consider homosexuality to be a choice and gave homosexuals equal rights. 23 % refused the idea due to religious background. Consequently, results indicate a more positive Lebanese attitude towards homosexuality in urban areas. More male participants than females were positive towards the issue in this study due to cultural factors.
In the 21st century, with the technological advances and globalization, there are many views on a person's sexual preference. In the past, the only acceptable affiliation was heterosexuality. Neither the Islamic religion nor the Christian religion support homosexuality. How do the Lebanese adults feel about the issue? Do we consider ourselves a homophobic society? Are we comfortable being around with homosexuals? Do we tackle the issue as any other ordinary issue? Do we give these people equal rights? Is there a difference between males and females opinions? Is attitude related to demographic factors in Lebanon? Does religion affect attitude?
2 LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 What is the attitude of Americans towards homosexuality?
According to Pew Research Center Publications, 58% of adults say that homosexuality should be encouraged rather than discouraged by society. Findings from the latest Pew research center political typology survey released may.4, 2011 showed that opposition to gay marriage has continued to decline. It has fallen by 19 points since 1996. Majorities across most demographic groups say that homosexuality should be accepted by society. Among religious groups, 79% of Catholics argue that Homosexuality should be accepted. While 29% of Protestants agree. Among democratic groups in the typology, an overwhelming percentage of solid liberals 92%say that homosexuality should be accepted by society ( the political typology report, 2011).
2.2 Is homosexuality biological?
For years, the question of whether homosexuality is biological or environmental has been the focus of many heated debates among scholars, scientists and socio- political activists. One of the first major studies conducted by American researchers on the nature of homosexuality began during the late 1930's. The study was conducted by the Kinsey group at Indiana University. Hormonal effects on the mother's nervous system during pregnancy may play a role in assigning gender identity. Those receiving lowered amounts of hormones from the parent may give rise to the child having problems identifying with their gender role (Grellert; 2008).
In a study by Hamer, he linked male sexuality to a stretch of genes on the x chromosome. Hamer had gone fishing in the DNA of forty pairs of homosexual brothers. Hamer also looked for a comparable X-linked marker for sexual orientation for lesbians, but had little luck. Female homosexuality does run in the family but there is no clear indication that it is genetic.
In August 1991, a San Francisco neuroanatomist, Simon LE Vay, published an article in the respected journal science. It reported his finding that a localized cluster ( a nucleus) of cells in the brains of homosexual men was twice as large by volume on autopsy in " heterosexual " men. …