Reflection on Challenges and Countermeasure of Entrepreneurship Education in China
Wang, Xianming, Cross - Cultural Communication
With the rapid pace of globalization, uncertainty, and discontinuous knowledge-based society, for a country, innovation and entrepreneurship have become the main competence. After the World War II, small and medium sized enterprises have promoted economic productivity and offered new job opportunities. Based on this, Entrepreneurship education has become a rapid new field in the universities. Entrepreneurship education is one of the basic ways to solve the employment problem of university students. At present, university enterprise education in China has just started, facing many problems. This paper attempts to make a theoretic reflection on problems of entrepreneurship education in China and make suggestive countermeasure.
Key Words: Entrepreneurship education; Higher education; Employability
1. INTRODUCTION OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP EDUCATION IN CHINA
1.1 Significance, Necessity and Present Situation of Entrepreneurship Education in China
Entrepreneurship is innovation, which is a novel way to connect existing resources with profit, a coincidence of a profit opportunity and an economic community willing to exploit this opportunity (Carey & Naudin, 2006). It is no less, if only, critical in the new knowledge-based economy driven by information technology in the global world economy Unlike business, entrepreneurship education is merely education of creation of business, which cultivates the individual with innovation, independence and employability. So entrepreneurship education is widely accepted in many countries.
Besides, Entrepreneurship education is fundamental to solve the problem of employment of university students (Lange, Kalandides, Stober & Mieg, 2008). In recent years, with substantial expansion of enrollment in colleges and universities, the overall status of the employment market, limited employment opportunities and relative surplus graduates form a pair of contradictions. As a result, the difficult employment of college students is becoming more and more prominent. Serious college students' employment situation becomes an important factor to restrict the development of higher education in China, and it is also a realistic problem which is beneficial to people's livelihood, social stability, and harmonious development. Because of this, how to resolve the difficult problem of employment of university students has become a major issue of common concern for the whole society. Based on this, we can say, entrepreneurship education is fundamental for the employability of university students. "Entrepreneurship drives employment" is a guideline advocated by central government. In China, College students' employment space is enormous. According to the statistics, for every hundred people in China now, the number of small and medium-sized enterprise is only3.4. If this number increased to one more, one more job opportunity will be provided averagely, and then at least 1000000 more employment opportunities for the whole country, employment pressure will be eased to a great extent. However, the current university graduates employment situation is not optimistic. In recent years, the number of university graduates in China is very high, but the proportion of university graduates self-employment has remained at a low level of 0.4% -0.5%, even in the provinces with high economic level, the number of graduates directly becoming entrepreneurs one year is not more than 5000(Dees, 1998). The reasons of the low rate of university graduates entrepreneurship include: the relative poor domestic capital market, low investment in the economic field, the financial difficulties. Besides, many business plans are difficult to put into practice, but the more important reason is the rare entrepreneurship education of university students in China, with poor entrepreneurial culture atmosphere, and the lack of entrepreneurial competence. As some scholars pointed out: after several years of exploration and practice, entrepreneurship education has become the development of higher education reform (Bridgstock, 2011). …