Road Traffic Accidents in Kazakhstan
Aubakirova, Alma, Kossumov, Alibek, Igissinov, Nurbek, Iranian Journal of Public Health
Background: The article provides the analysis of death rates in road traffic accidents in Kazakhstan from 2004 to 2010 and explores the use of sanitary aviation.
Methods: Data of fatalities caused by road traffic accidents were collected and analysed. Descriptive and analytical methods of epidemiology and biomedical statistics were applied.
Results: Totaly 27,003 people died as a result of road traffic accidents in this period. The death rate for the total population due to road traffic accidents was 25.0±2.1°/^sub 0000^. The death rate for men was (38.3±3.2°/^sub 0000^), which was higher (P<0.05) than that for women (12.6±1.1°/^sub 0000^). High death rates in the entire male population were identified among men of 30-39 years old, whereas the highest rates for women were attributed to the groups of 50-59 years old and 70-79 years old. In time dynamics, death rates tended to decrease: the total population (T^sub dec^=-2.4%), men (T^sub dec^=-2.3%) and women (T^sub dec^=-1.4%). When researching territorial relevance, the rates were established as low (to 18.3°/^sub 0000^), average (between18.3 and24.0°/^sub 0000^) and high (from 24.00/0000 and above). Thus, the regions with high rates included Akmola region (24.3°/^sub 0000^), Mangistau region (25.9°/^sub 0000^), Zhambyl region (27.3°/^sub 0000^), Almaty region (29.3°/^sub 0000^) and South Kazakhstan region (32.4°/^sub 0000^).
Conclusion: The identified epidemiological characteristics of the population deaths rates from road traffic accidents should be used in integrated and targeted interventions to enhance prevention of injuries in accidents.
Keywords: Death rate, Traffic, Accident, Kazakhstan
(ProQuest: ... denotes formulae omitted.)
According to the global statistics, each year 300,000 people die as a result of road traffic acci-dents (RTA) and over 8 million people receive injuries. An annual growth rate of fatal injuries is 5% (1). According to a report by WHO, India is a leading county in the number of deaths in RTA in the world ranking. According to data for 2007, 114,590 people died in India as a result of RTA. The second place belongs to China with 89,455 deaths. According to statistics (2), 5 -12% of all deaths are deaths from RTA. 28-47% of the total number of deaths is deaths at an RTA site or dur-ing transportation (3). RTA injuries are becoming epidemic. Their negative consequences by far exceed outcomes of both communicable and some non-communicable diseases (4, 5). To date, traffic accidents have become one of the main causes of injury, disability and mortality worldwide (6-8).
Projections show that the global annual number of deaths on roads will increase in the next 20 years by 65% unless effective road safety measures are undertaken to prevent traffic accidents and reduce severity of their outcomes (7).
One mechanism for reducing deaths from RTA is compliance with the rules of a so-called "golden hour" and a so-called "diamond half an hour", when required medical care is provided to victims in the first hour after an injury is received. This allows the highest chance of survival and significant reduction of risks of complications.
A review of research in Europe (9) showed that about 50% of deaths from RTA occur within a few minutes at a site of an accident or en-route to hospital. Fifteen% of victims die in hospital within four hours after an accident and 35% die after four hours. A comparative study of deaths from RTA in several countries (10) showed that the ma-jority of deaths in low and middle-income coun-tries occur before admission to hospital. World leading countries' experience shows that the use of air medical / ambulance service (AMS) in cases of RTA reduces mortality by 30-40%.
In Kazakhstan, one, among already existing action plans and mechanisms to reduce fatalities, is re-vival of the AMS. The use of small aircrafts (heli-copters) can reduce time to hospital admission and increase efficiency of actions provided after an RTA (11). …