Current Condition and Development of Chinese Science, Technology and Society Research
Jia, Chen, Fan, Chen, Huiduan, Ma, Asia - Pacific Science and Culture Journal
Keywords: Science; Technology and society; Chinese context; Development
Abstract: This article develops a statistics approach to thinking about Current Condition and Development of Chinese Science, Technology and Society Research. Firstly, we divided three periods of Chinese STS with the background of internationalization. Secondly, we classified Chinese STS research as seven fields as follows, Basic Theory of STS, Science Technology and Economy, Science Technology and Politics, Science Technology and Culture, Science and Technology Policy, Technological and Ecological Ethics, and STS Education. Here, we do a statistical analysis about the Chinese STS research papers according on these seven fields, further, we inquire the current problems of Chinese STS research and try to indicate the trends of Chinese STS research.
1. New Features of STS on 21st Century
Firstly, globalization. STS research originated from Europe and US. in the 1960s. While since 1990s, some developing countries such as China, India start to their STS research because the need to development of their social economy. Japan and Korea were tried to bridge the gap between the West and East STS research. The STS international conferences are held more frequently between the developed and developing countries. All these above are demonstrate that the STS studies become more and more globalization.
Secondly, diversity. The globalization of STS will inevitably lead to the diversity of STS. In this case, European scholars focus on the theory research on STS and its European character( The social shaping technology from Edinburgh School, European Association for Science and Technology Studies); US. Scholars focus on theoretical orientation (disciplinary, "High Church") and practical orientation (interdisciplinary, "Low Church") developing respectively, however US. STS are focus changing; Japan stressed that learn from other countries' STS and result with a strong technical character (Japanese STS Network, Japanese Society for STS); While China focus on practical orientation. With the rise of "Science and technology are primary productive forces", "strategy of invigorating the country through science, technology and education" and "strategy of sustainable development", China put the relationship among science technology and society to strategic height, meanwhile they also take notice to the theoretical research on STS. Thus, developed countries pay more attention to the negative impact of science and technology while developing countries are more focus on the social function of science and technology.
Thirdly, integration. The globalization the diversity of STS will accompanied with the systematic research of STS. STS has accumulated a wealth of academic resources and theoretical results in the 50 years since it come into being. It is possible and necessary to systematic research the relationship of STS and the negative and positive value in science and technology. STS will become increasingly integrated.
2. A Historical Review of STS Practice in China
Both practice and research of STS in China formed themselves in the matrix of Philosophy of Technology and Science. STS in China have double roles in fact: one is as a discipline, which has to explore the fundamental issues involved philosophy of nature, philosophy of science, philosophy of technology in order to prove itself from the bottom line; the other is as a specific social course, which helps the governments at all levels make appropriate science-technology policies, being more practical. Based on this second role, STS in China includes many discussions about the relations between science-technology and politics, economic, culture, law and policies respectively, which therefore gradually forms an "big bag" paradigm. In other words, a historical history of Chinese STS is also a history of development of Philosophy of Science and Technology, and it can be divided into three obvious stages as follow. …