The Effect of Labor's Emotional Intelligence on Their Job Satisfaction, Job Performance and Commitment

By Shooshtarian, Zakieh; Ameli, Fatemeh et al. | Iranian Journal of Management Studies, January 2013 | Go to article overview

The Effect of Labor's Emotional Intelligence on Their Job Satisfaction, Job Performance and Commitment


Shooshtarian, Zakieh, Ameli, Fatemeh, Aminilari, Mahmood, Iranian Journal of Management Studies


(ProQuest: ... denotes non-US-ASCII text omitted.)

1. Introduction

Emotional Intelligence is one of the most important concepts introduced to psychology and management in the last decade. Thorndike (1920) who proposed the concept of social intelligence defined it as "the ability to understand and manage men and women, boys and girls to act wisely in human relationships". Following this theory, Gardner (1983) in his seminal work on the theory of multiple intelligence, described the personal intelligence as the "knowledge of the internal aspects of a person: Access to one's feeling life, one's range of emotions, the capacity to effect discriminations among these emotions and eventually to label them, and to draw upon them as a means of understanding and guiding one's own behavior".

The concept of emotional intelligence was introduced in 1990, when two articles were written by Salovey and Mayer. They defined it as "the ability to monitor one's own and other's feelings and emotions, to discriminate between them, and to use the information to guide one's thinking and actions". Since then, EI has been used by many researchers in psychology and management.

In the context of the emerging affective revolution in social and organizational psychology, EI is proposed as an important predictor of key organizational outcomes including job satisfaction (Barsade & Gibson, 2007). There is accumulating evidence that EI abilities and traits influence job satisfaction and employers should select the employees, especially in jobs that demand a high degree of social interaction (Carmeli, Yitzhak-Halevy, & Weisberg, 2009).

In 1997, Mayer and Salovey described four abilities that contribute to emotional Intelligence:

1. Perception: It involves accurate verbal and non-verbal expression and appraisal of emotion.

2. Assimilation: It involves generation of emotion to assist in problem-solving.

3. Understanding: It involves acquisition of emotion knowledge designed to promote intellectual and emotional growth.

4. Management of emotion: It involves regulation of emotion in the self and in others.

Job satisfaction has been defined in several different ways. According to Spector (1997) "job satisfaction is simply how people feel about different aspects of their jobs .It is extended to which people like or dislike about their jobs".

Many factors such as organizational factors, environmental factors, job nature and employee's characteristic influence on job satisfaction. Job satisfaction depends on the balance between work-role inputs and work-role outputs .Employees compare their inputs and outputs. If outputs increase relatively to inputs, job satisfaction will increase.

According to Webster, commitment is "an agreement to do something in the future". Commitment is the degree of employee's involvement, loyalty and belief in the values of the organization. Employees have loyalty, when they have many job opportunities, but they prefer to stay in the organization (Bhuian & Mengue, 2002).

Porter (1974) believes that three factors cause to increase the commitment .These consist of organization goals acceptance, attempt to reach the goals and tendency to stay in organization.

Job performance, most commonly refers to the degree a person performs his job well. Performance is an extremely important criterion that relates to organizational outcomes and success. Among the most commonly accepted theories of job performance comes from the work of Campbell and colleagues (1970). Campbell describes job performance as an individual level variable. That is performance is person's behavior and something a single person does. Performance is not outcomes. Outcomes are the result of an individual's performance.

2. Review of Literature

Psychological research increasingly suggests the importance of EI in predicting success in life (Bar-On, 1997). On the other hand, researches in management and organization showed that people with high level of EI are more effective in team performance and team leadership (Rice, 1999) and more adaptable to stressful events (Nikolaou & Tsaousis, 2002). …

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